dated back to the early 1970s, as represented by radical palestinian terrorist group Black September seizure of the Israeli olympic village at the 1972 munich olympics, an event which captured an immense international television audience and demonstrated powerfully the amplifying effect of the elctronic media in the informaiton age
Two types of terrism dominated the landscape:
-social recolutionary terroists: also known as terorism of the left, groups seeking to overthrow the capitalist economic and social order, exemplified by the red army faction in germany and the red brigades in italy
-seeking to influence the west
-NATIONALIST-SEPERASIT TERRORISM CONTINUES AS ONE OF THE TWO PREDOMINANT TERRORIST TYPES ACTIVE TODAY, CONTRASTING TO THE SOCIAL REVOLUTIONARY TERRORIST GROUP
-Also known as ethnonationalist terrorism, these groups are fighting to establish a new political order or state based on ethnic dominance or homogeneity
their acts of terrorism are acts of revenge aginst the generation of their families that they hold respobsible for their failures in this world post 1985
Islamist fundamentalist terrorism
-Increasingly frequency of terrorist acts by radical religious extremist terrorists, in partucular radical islamists fundamentalists terrorists.
-they are not tring to influence the west. Rather, the radical islamist terrorists are trying to expel the secular modernizing west. And they do not need recognition by having their names identified in the nytimes headlines or on CNN. they are killing in the name of God
-Traditionalist groups: islamic, jewish, christian and sikh radical fundamentalists.
Killing in the name of god
-osama bin laden is known for his piety and has been granted the title emir. Like Khomeini, osama bin laden regularly cites verses from the Koran to justify his acts of terror and extreme violence, employing many of the same verses as earlier cited by Khomeini.
-It is god's word, not Osama bin Laden who is ordering his followers to kill Americans. Osama bin laden is merely the messenger. Bin laden was speaking as if he were the new prophet and was the authentic interpretor of the koran
major threats to contemporary society
-Nationalist seperatists terrorists
-islamists religious fundamentalists
-radical islamists terrorists: hamas, islamic jihad and hexbollah
-secular terrorists- fatah and the palestinian front for the liberation of palestine
-fatah members- families had good social standing but their status and experience as refugees was paramount in their development of self identitiy
-secular terrorists- enlistment was a natural step. the identity of the members was well known in the community and joining led to enhanced social status.
-inflicting pain on the enemy was paramount in the early days of the Fatah movement
-no distinction was made between armed actions on soldiers or on civilians; the main thing was the amounf of blood.
View of armed attacks
Armed attacks are viewed as essential to the operation of the organiztion
"our goal can only be acheived through force, but force is the meants, not the end. History shows that without force it will be impossible to acheive independence
socialization of hatred
the hatred socialized toward the israelis was remarkable, especially given that few reported any contact with israelis
The cauldron of life expeiriences of an Abu Nidal terrorists
-The defendent ssuredly did not beleive that what he was doing was wrong, for from boyhood on Rezaq had been socialized to be a heroic revolutionary fighting for the palestinian nation
-taught that the only way to become a man was to join the revolution and take back the lands stolen from his parents and grandparents
Islamist fundamentalist terrorism
a soldier for allah
relgious fundamentalist terrorists
many of the secular members report that while activism within the community was most influenction in their decision to join, their first introduction to the cause as at the mosque or in another religious setting. authority figures from the mosque were prominent in all conversations with group members and most dramatically fro members of the islamist organizations.the introductions to authority and unquestionaing obedience to allah and authority is instilled at a young aged and stays
By joining Hamas or fatah....
-increased social standing
-recruits were treated with respect. A youngster who belong to hamas or fatah was regarded more highly than one who didn't belong to a group and got better treatment than unaffiliated kids
-the more an attack hurts the enemy, the more important it is
-Martydrom or self sacrifice in the service of allah
-several of the islamist terrorist commanders interviewed called the suicide bombers holy warriers who were carying out the highest level of jihad
Jihad appears 41 times in the Quran and frequently in the idiomatic expression "striving in the way of God (al-jihad fi sabil Allah)". A person engaged in jihad is called amujahid; the plural is mujahideen. Jihad is an important religious duty for Muslims. A minority among the Sunni scholarssometimes refer to this duty as the sixth pillar of Islam, though it occupies no such official status. In Twelver Shi'a Islam, however, Jihad is one of the 10 Practices of the Religion.
Palestinian suicide bombers in israel
-psychological autopsies, that is, reconstuctions of the lives of suicides, have been developed for some 93 suicide bombers of the palestinian suicide bombers in israel
-now age/gender is different, but originally young men between the ages of 17 and 22 who were told that their life prospects were bleak.
hijackers of 9/11
- older age- 28-33 with the eception of a small group of younger terrorists brought in late for muscle, who were probably unaware that their was not a conventional hijacking
-mohammad Atta- the ringleader, was 33
- number of higher educationmost came from comfortable middle class homes in saudi arabia or egypt
- fullt formed adults, who had subordinated their individuality to organization as they responded uncriticaly to the siren song of hatred sung by the hate mongering destructiive leader, osama
fusion of the individual and the group
- once recruited, there is a cleare fusing of individual identity and the group identity, particularly among the more radical elements of each organization
-their ability to work was regulated, the ability to travel freely was severely restricted, and there was a general impression that they were denied the opportunity to advance economically
-"success" within the community is defined as fighting for the cause= liberation and religious freedom are the values that defines success, not acedemic/econ
fusion of the individual and the group 2
- as individual identiy succumbs to the organization, there is no room for individuality- individual ideas, individual identiy and individual decision making- while at the same time self perceifed success becomes more and more linked to the organization
-the more prominent and more important (and more violent) a group is, the greater the prestige that is then projected onto group members. this creates a cycle where a group's members have direct need to increase the power and prestige of the group
islamic groups are fighting for...
- a pure islamic state
- they are seeking to satisfy allah
-fatwas religious edicts
-whether israel or the united states--it is anyone who is opposed to their worldview
Terrorist phychology: implications for counter-terrorist strategy
- it is important to emphasize that terrorists are phychologically normal
- terrorists are not crazed fanatics. indeed, terrorist groups expel emotionally unstable indivduals, after all, the represent a security risk. it is group, organizational and social psychology, with a particular emphasis on collective identity, rather than individual phychopathology, which is the foundation of terrorist phychology
- smaller and more autonomous the group, the more counterproductive is the external force
terrorists whose only sense of significance comes from being terrorists cannot...
be forced to give up terrorism, for to do so would be to lose their very reason for being
political terrorism is the product of....
- generational forces
- hatred bred in the bone, passed from generation to generation
-no short term solution
- important to facilitate terrorists leaving
inhibit potential terrorists from joining the group- reducing terrorism
-alienated youth must be able to envisage a future within the system that promises redress of long standing economic and social inequity and come to beleive that political activism can lead to their finding a pathway to these goals
- jihadi movement will require more vidorous diplmatic intervention with autocratic musilim and arab nations, who are identified as apostate leaders by the islamist terrorist
-crucial to reform the education system
produce dissension within the group
when terrorists do defect from the group, information can be fed back into the group to identify other traitors within the group, exacerbating the intragroup tension
faciliate exit from the group
"no way out"
a way out can be provided through amnesty programs
reduce support for the group and its leaders
-the group or organization must be marginalized, its leaders delegitimated.
-it wil recquire decades to reduce the attractiveness of terrorism for those who have been raised in a climate dominated by homepless and despair, with hatred bred to the bone, so that exreminism and violence have increasingly come to be seen as the only course
-need public education reform
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