men tend to focus on large, shallow social networks which to tend to have a larger cultural impact than the smaller, intimate relationships women focus on
men are disposable
manhood is to be earned (i.e. men must contribute more than they use)
All mental processes people use to transform sensory input into knowledge
must scholars view culture itself as cognition
perceptions involving apparent discrepancy between how an object looks and what it actually is
Carpentered world theory
suggests that people (at least most Americans) are used to seeing things that are rectangular in shape and unconsciously come to expect things to have square corners
front horizontal foreshortening theory
suggests that we interpret vertical lines as horizontal lines extending into the distance.
symbolizing three dimensions in two
theory suggests that people in western cultures focus more on representations on paper than do people in other cultures.
Differences between Jap and American attention
Japanese people were able to give more information about background information but focal objects were equal.
Differences in categorization
While categorization is a universal, cultures differ in the way in which people categorize study of Chinese and American children. Chinese: grouped objects according to functional relationship, for instance woman and child. Americans: grouped objects by shared features, for instance man and woman.
study of Chinese and American children. Chinese: grouped objects according to functional relationship, for instance woman and child. Americans: grouped objects by shared features, for instance man and woman.
broadly defines as the tendency to accept what seems to be contradictions in thought or belief
tries to find some way that both sides can be correct and tolerates the contradiction
Positive Logical Thinking
tendency to accept logical cause and effect relationship
Mother daughter conflict Dialectical/logical
Dialectical: think about it from both sides, make a compromise
Logical: one side was to blame
hypothetical beliefs about the past that could have occurred to avoid or change negative outcome
Generalization: going beyond the information given Speed: faster processing is better Minimal Moves: best performance calls for reaching the solution in the fewest steps No Hands: preference for mental rather than physical manipulations Something of One’s Own: preference for originality and creativity
Biolgoy teacher at IU asked to teach summer marriage course for students
1948: sexual behavior in the human male 1953: sexual behavior in the human femal
0- exclusive heterosexual 1- predominantly heterosexual; only incidentally homosexual 2- predominantly heterosexual; but more than incidentally homosexual 3- equally hetero and homo sexual 4- predominantly homosexual; but more than incidentally heterosexual 5- predominantly homosexual; only incidentally heterosexual 6- exclusively homosexual
He found that children from wealthier backgrounds saw the coins as smaller than they actually were while those from a poor backgrounds saw them as bigger than they actually were.
culture in Ireland describes as "one of the most sexually nai've of the world's societys
women are expected to "endure sex". Men believe that intercourse is hard on their health
Men believe that semen is necessary to give life force to a fetus, which is said to be placed within a woman by an ancestral spirit.
They believe that there is a limited supple of semen, so sexuality saps male vitality.
only allows heterosexual intercourse about 100 days a year
homosexual acts are seen as essential because they believe that boys cannot produce semen on their own so they must acquire semen from older men, so from age 10 boys are inseminated by older men.
"online sexual activities"
viewing explicit material
sex negative cultures
see semen loss, even in coitus, as a weakness; and sexual asceticism is encouraged
sex positive cultures
emphasize the pleasurable, rewarding, and non procreative aspects of sex
Great diversity of accepted behaviors
pre-pubertal sex showing children how to have sex not having foreplay coitus with animals prepubescent boys to fellate the older ones polygamy masturbation incest (taboo most everywhere)
females prefer ____ in mates
financial prospects, industriousness, ambition, older age
males prefer ____ in mates
youth, good looks, chastity
Cooper (1998) and Cooper (1999)
Cooper and Young found certain reasons for why the Internet is a vehicle for human sexuality cross-culturally.
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