o Get distracted by outside world
o Need to get others involved
o Are invasive of others’ time
o Procrastinate about being alone to think and reflect
o In present moment
o Regard “time” as this moment
o Too much or too little to do
o Procrastinate about envisioning or dreaming of the future
o Objectify time
o Procrastinate about working on relationships
o Seem terse
o Make lists of items to be done, overlook things not on list
o Don’t want to be caught last minute without schedule
o Want themselves, or someone, in control
o Manage time
o Read books about time and follow their advice
o Work first, play later
o Procrastinate about making time for leisure or play
o Can get into their own projects and forget deadlines in the outside world
o Desire to work alone
o Tend to let their time be invaded by others
o Procrastinate about engaging with social groups
o Are then and there-in the future
o Regard time as endless
o Believe that they can always do more
o Procrastinate about really enjoying today
o Believe that time is relative
o Organize presentations to meet others’ needs
o Are more chatty
o Procrastinate about working to resolve conflict
o Make a list of option
o Prone to last minute starts and the belief that things will work out
o Question whether there is such thing as control
o Adapt to time
o Procrastinate laborious tasks
power based on others identifying with the leader
power based on the sanctions or punishments within the control of the leader.
Interaction Process Skill
a) Skills based on an understanding of the communication process; an awareness of individual predispositions, strategies and tactics in a variety of circumstances; and knowledge and sensitivity for decision making and problem solving.
a) The method entails a group of experts who anonymously reply to questionnaires and subsequently receive feedback in the form of a statistical representation of the "group response," after which the process repeats itself.
Less group commitment
a) When more than 50% of a group reaches a decision
a) All members agreeing on what is best
a) Process for decision making based on reflective thinking, beginning with understanding the charge, and followed by understanding and phrasing the question, fact finding, setting criteria and limitations, discovering and selecting solutions, and preparing and presenting final report.
Experientially based processes
a) Processes, reflecting bounded rationality contributing to satisficing, or the generation of decisions that are good enough if not the best. Processes use a variety of past experiences, emotional reaction, and knowledge and beliefs in producing decision often not possible with more strictly rational approaches.
a) Assumed the leaders possessed innate traits that made them effective
a) Attempt to identify a range of general approaches leaders use to achieve goals. The approaches are thought to be based on a leader’s assumptions about what motivates people to accomplish goals
a) Style of leader or manager who makes decisions with little influence from others
a) Style of leader or manager who behaves as a nonleader who behaves as a non-leader. Individuals and groups are expected to make their own decision because of a hands off approach from the leader
a) Process of giving employees the maximum amount of power to do a job as they see fit; includes both responsibility and accountability for work performed
a) Leadership responsibilities broadly distributed throughout the organization
a) The process of leading others to lead themselves
a) Leadership theories that explore how leaders interact with followers and the requirements of a particular environment.
individuals or groups refrain from offering positions or solutions during times of Org. problems and change
beliefs about the potential impact of the change and its overall importance and desirability
attempts to change an organization's basic design by altering chains of command, work functions, spans of control, and decision-making protocols.
Change focusing on state-of-the-art machinery, automation, and job design
Efforts focusing on the development and engagement of organizational employees as resources
Underlying conditions in organizations and individual relationships that have the potential for conflict
Person(s) who the change actually affects.
Person(s) responsible for implementing and managing the change process.
Person(s) responsible for conceptualizing and starting the change process.
The person(s) who are responsible for the actualization of the change process.
Person(s) who support the change but may or may not be directly affected be the change itself.
is the opposite of affinity (natural attraction, liking, or feeling of kinship) interpersonal conflict is the breaking down of attraction and the development of repulsion, the dissolution of perceived homophily and the increased perception of incompatible differences, the loss of perceptions of credibility and the development of disrespect.
It takes only one person in a relationship to perceive conflict and if one person perceives it, it exists.
a difference of opinion between persons and there are two types
1. Substantive-are about topics or issues at hand
2. Procedural-are concerned with how decisions should be reached or how a policy should be implemented
is a power-oriented mode in which one uses whatever seems appropriate to win one’s own position. Power maybe expressed through rank, argumentative expertise, or money. Competing may be used to defend a position that one believes is correct or simply to try to win. In this mode, one plays to win.
is the opposite of competition and means yielding to another’s point of view. In a group, individuals using this may succumb to pressure to make a decision by choosing not to insist on their point of view, and then disavow the group decision.
preference for conflict associated with the sacrifice of personal goals to maintain relationships
preference for conflict who are unlikely to pursue their own goals and needs or to support relationships and the goals and needs of others
means that a person asserts individual goals while also being concerned with the goals of others. Involves an attempt to work with others to find a solution that satisfies the concerns of all parties. This used between two persons might take the form of: exploring a disagreement to learn from each other’s insights. Working together to resolve some condition that might have the two parties competing for power. Confronting and trying to find a creative solution to an interpersonal problem.
preference for ideally balancing people and task concerns during conflict
entails working to find some expedient, mutually acceptable solution that fully, or at least partially, satisfies both parties. This may mean splitting the difference; exchanging concessions; or seeking a quick, middle ground position. A problem with the this style is that some individuals may give in too easily and fail to seek a solution with significant gains to either party.
preference during conflict for balancing people concerns with task issues by exhibiting give-and-take or negotiation behaviors
Faulty decision making that results from a lackof critical thinking. It occursregularly and can have a devastating influence on groups.
Usually occurs when: group is highly cohesive, no disagreement in group, group feels infallible, group members protect one another from criticism.
Work on increasing your _____________—ask, “why am I angry or at what do I disagree with” Rather than just reacting to your anger or your disagreement.
Behaviors: Guilt, self-absorption, rumors conflict, sabotage, stress blame, increased perceived value of the status quo
Strategy: Encourage movement through open communication, guidance, confidence, and trust
implementation of an evolutionary new state, which requires major and often ongoing changes in organizational strategy and vision
Ex. mergers and acquisitions, insolvencies
Organization moves to radically different
Unknown, future state
Guilt, self-absorption, rumors conflict, sabotage, stress blame, increased perceived value of the status quo
-Reinforce the need for change and focus on the future
-Provide accurate and timely information
-Identify supporters who can provide consistency and stability
1.Thevictim as well as the harasser may be a woman or a man. The victim does not have to be of the opposite sex.
2.Theharasser can be the victim’s supervisor, an agent of the employer, a supervisor in another area, a coworker, or a non-employee.
3.The victim does not have to be the person harassed but could be anyone affected by the offensive conduct.
4.Unlawfulsexual harassment may occur without economic injury to or discharge of the victim.
5.The harasser’s conduct must be unwelcome.
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