Each year: -1.4 million people sustain TBI -50,000 die -230,000-250,000 adults are hospitalized -1.1 from ER -About 40% will still need help one year later
What are some effects of a TBI?
The deficits depend on the sites of lesion -sensory -motor -behavioral -affective -communication -motor speech -hearing -language -extralinguistic -pragmatics..big problem
Intervention for a TBI
-Recovery occurs in starts and stops (plateaus) -Cognitive rehab -2 primary approaches
What causes dementia?
-"dementia" is an umbrella term -it is progressive -there are numerous causes -alzheimer's disease is just one of the causes of dementia
Who has dementia?
-fewer than 15% of the elderly experience dementia -10% of the 65+ population has Alzheimer's disease -50% of the 85+ population has Alzheimer's disease
What are the symptoms of dementia?
-Memory deficits -AND at least one of the following: aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, and impaired executive function -AND problems with employment and/or social functioning secondary to deficits
What is working memory?
It holds information long enough for you to decide or act on something
What are the types of long-term memory?
Declarative-things you say Procedural-things you do
What are some communication strategies when talking with those that have dementia?
-Show not tell (procedural) -Engage in procedural tasks (procedural) -Reminisce about decades ago, not hours ago -Constant correction causes social isolation: don't correct, validade -validation therapy -reminiscence therapy
Summary of cognitive communication disorders.
-Site of sites of lesion contribute to the patterns of difficulty the person has -May involve linguistic and extralinguistic aspects -Prognosis is influenced by the medical etiology of the disorder -SLPs help the individual regain skills or compensate as appropriate
What does the left brain control?
-The right side of the body -Language -comprehension -expression -reading-decoding -Speech -Logic/Math -Detail
What does the right brain control?
-The left side of he body -Attention -Perceptual Skills -reading-sight words, visually picturable words -Macrostructure -Emotion/Pragmatics -Organization -Problem Solving
What is language?
-A socially shared code for representing concepts through the use of arbitrary symbols and rule-governed combos of those symbols
What is cognition?
When you think or use a conscious mental process. Communication is a cognitive act.
What is language impairment?
-A heterogeneous group of deficits and/or immaturities in the comprehension and/or production of spoken or written language. -May involve form, content, and/or use. -May affect multiple modalities.
What are cognitive-communication deficits?
deficits secondary to impairments in the underlying cognitive processes used to support functional, meaningful and appropriate interactions
What are some acquired cognitive-linguistic disorders?
-Focal Lesions -Left Side = Aphasia -Right Side = RHD -Multiple Lesions: more than one location of injury -The disorder depends on the damage patterns in the brain and the etiology of the damage
What are some general trends of brain damage?
Focal damage to the left hemisphere = aphasia Focal damage to the right hemisphere = cognitive-communication disorder Diffuse damage across both hemispheres = cognitive-communication disorder, and possibly aphasia too
What causes aphasia?
Anything that causes damage to the language centers in the left cerebral hemisphere: accidents, disease, tumors, strokes, etc.
What are the types of aphasia? Based on lesion site.