1. How an individual thinks about his/her stuttering 2. How knowledgeable a person is about his/her stuttering
What is the Stuttering evaluation of PreK?
detailed analysis of stuttering behaviors
observation of child's response
observation of parent-child interaction
determine risk for persistence
What are risk factors for persistence of stuttering?
positive family history
duration > 6 mon. especially if worsening over time
presence of concomitant speech or language problems
negative emotional response
loss of eye contact
sound prolongations & clusters
onset after age 3.5
What is stuttering therapy-preschool?
Always indicated when risk for persistence is present
outcomes are excellent w/ preschool CWS
lidcombe: 95% recovery
fosnat: 91% over 5 years
Gottwald & Starkweather: 100% maintained over 2 yrs
What is preschool therapy-indirect?
SLP & parent modeling
use of rate reduction & pausing
reducing lang. demands
no discussion about child's speech
What is preschool therapy-direct?
talking about talking
"hard" vs "easy" talking
tools to say words easier
What is chronic stuttering treatment?
Change timing & tension Treatment that incorporates attitudes & emo. about stuttering more helpful than speech alone Selection of techniques depends on severity of problem, motive & needs of client & SLP knowledge & comfort w/ various strategies
What are the 7 fluency shaping techniques?
reducing speaking rate
light articulatory contacts
pausing & phrasing
Gradual increas in length & Complexity of utterance (GILCU)
What are stuttering modification techniques (8)
relax the stutter(pull out, easy bounce)
preparatory set (ease in)
addressing underlying fears & attitudes
freezing the moment of stuttering
What is the treatment efficacy w/ confirmed stutters? (3)
1. 61% avg decrease in stuttering severity w/ school age 2. 60-80% improvement rate in adults regardless of techniques used 3. Avg. improvement in 70% of all cases across all ages
What are some stuttering self help/resources?
1. national stuttering association 2. stuttering foundation of america 3. Stuttering home page 4. FRIENDS
What is an effective outcome for stuttering treatment?
If it resulted in an individuals being able to speak w/ disfluencies w/in normal limits whenever & to whomever he or she chose, w/o undue concern or worry about speaking
What are some neurogenic stuttering?
*Follows injury or disease to CNS *Occasionally individuals will only show speech disruption w/o clear evidence of neurologic damage *appears most often in adults w/ history of normal speech production prior to injury or disease *Level of awareness can vary
What is signs of psychogenic stuttering?
*No identified medical facotrs/history of developmental stuttering *late onset (late teen & older) *Linked to emo. stress or trauma *Involuntary *Core symptoms resemble developmental stuttering *May occur alone or related to other signs of psychological or neruological involvement *stuttering may increase during fluency-inducing conditions *Diagnosis needs to rule out neurologic etiology
what is cluttering?
A fluency disorder characterized by a rapid and or irregular speaking rate, excessive disfluencies, and often other symptoms such as lang. or phonological errors and attention deficits.
What is signs of cluttering?
*individual doesn't sound "fluent" *Excessive levels of normal disfluencies *Little or no physical struggle to speak *few if any secondary behaviors *Often talks to fast *Sounds jerky *Has pauses that are to short, to long or improprely placed *Speech is often difficult to understand
Organic voice disorders are related to misuse of?
1. vocal polyps
2. laryngitis (hyper functional, mis used)
what is dysphonia?
are a group of speech sound disorders caused to something impairment.
what is the worst thing that can happen with a person with vocal paralysis?
if paralized together then like it is then you'd die. It also can happen with heart surgery
what is hypokinetic dysphonia?
The voice aspect of dyshonia means?
the impairment of the voice.
what is spastic dysphonia?
is a spastic dysarthia but stands alone and can be neurologic or psychogenic cause and can manifest the vocal cords coming to close together to strongly or the are not coming together enough.
why are there voice disorders?
there can be voice disorders from a variety of reasons
The person with laryngeal cancer, is there treatments?
Papilloma is common in adults or children?
What are nonorganic voice disorders?
malingering and psychogenic disorders
what is malingering?
making things up and change your voice for a purpose ex acting sick over the phone to call in sick.
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