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a) Bordin analyzed career choices using the unconscious mind.
Edwin Bordin felt that difficulties related to job choice
a. are indicative of neurotic symptoms
b. are indicative of inappropriate reinforcers in the environment
c. are related to a lack of present moment awareness
d. are the result of irrational cognitions
c) Choice a) would be the value system while choice b) refers to the decision system. Prediction focuses on the probablility of an outcome
In the Gelatt Model the predictve system deals with''
a. personal likes, dislikes, and preferences.
b. personal rules
c. alternatives and the probablility of outcomes
d. the self-directed search.
c) Unfortunately, the estimated return rate of surveys is around 40%. Survey problems include: poor construction of the instrument, a low return rate, and the fact that often subjects ar enot picked at random and thus are not representative of the population.
The simplest form of descriptive research is the ______________________, which requires a questionnaire return rate of _________________ to be accurate.
a. survey; 5%
b. survey; 10%-25%
c. survey; 50%-75%
d. survey; 90%
a) It is very important that researchers "operationally define' procedures so that other researchers can attempt to "replicate" an experimental procedure.
An operational definition:
a. outlines a procedure
b. is theoretical
c. outlines a construct
d. is synonymous with the word axiom
a) CRC stands for Certified Rehabilitation Counselor
You are a school counselor who wishes to refer an orthopedically disabled student to a private therapist. In gerneral, the best referral would be to
a. a CRC
b. a MAC
c. a licensed psychologist
d. a licensed social worker
The doctor-patient consultation model relies on four distinct stages: entry, diagnosis, implementation, and evaluation. In order for the doctor-patient structure to work, the consultee must accurately depict symptomatology, trust the consultant's diagnosis, and carry out the consultant's directives. This model is associated most closely with the work of;
c) Caplan The four basic types of mental health consultation have been proposed by Gerald Caplan (client centered, consultee centered, program centered, consultee centered-administrative consultation)
The most popular paradigm of mental health consultation has been proposed by
a. Satir and Minuchin
Most ethical dilemmas are related to
a) Counselors and social works seem comfortable with master's level practitioners.
One major difference between the psychology versus the counseling movement seems to be that
a. the psychologists are working to eliminate practitioners with less than a doctorate, while the counselors are not
b. counselors are working to give up tests for licensure
c. psychology boards are made up primarily of psychiatrists
d. in most states psychologists do not need to take an exam
a) Accreditation is not the law. Also, the term accreditation applies to programs NOT individual counselors.
State laws can govern title usage and practice, however, they do not govern
b. counselor licensure
c. psychologist licensure
d. involuntary commitment to state psychiatric facilities
b) Here's a must know question for anyone seriously contemplating a thesis or disseratationi. The Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) is a resource bank of scholarly literature and resources to help you complete your literature search before you begin writing.
A doctoral student who begins working on his bibliography for hs thesis would most likely utilize
b. ERIC, for primary and secondary resources
d. a random number table or random number generation computer program
b) In the sweet lemon variety of rationalization the person overrates the situation. (yes I love this, and lemons taste sweet - dream on!!)
A master's level counselor lands an entry level counseling job in an agency in a warm climate. Her office is not air conditioned, but the counselor insists she likes this because sweating really helps to keep her weight in check. This illuminates
a. sour grapes rationalization
b. sweet lemon rationalization
c) The sour grapes variety of rationalization is "I didn't really want it anyway."
A student tells a college counselor that he is not upset by a grade of "F" in physical education that marred his fourth year perfect 4.0 average, inasmuch as "straight A students are eggheads." This demonstrates
b. reaction formation
c. sour grapes rationalization
d. sweet lemon rationalization
b) Three or four children is usually recommended, versus about eight people in an adult group
Most experts would agree that an effective counseling group for children has
a. more members than an adult group
b. less members than an adult group
c. at least two group leaders
d. 9-12 members
d) You must know the strengths and limitations of group work for any comprehensive exam. Choice d) depicts a major limitation
A major limitation related to group work is that
a. REBT cannot be utilized in group therapy
b. it is not really cost effective
c. gestal therapy cannot be used in a group setting
d. a group leader can lose control and members could experience emotional harm
a) five. (Growth, Exploration, Establishment, Maintenance, Decline). Developmental theories like Donald Super's emphasize longitudinal career-related behavior.
Super's theory emphasizes ___________ life stages
If an ANOVA yields significant F value, you could rely on _____________ to test significant differences between group means.
a. one and two-tailed t tests
b. percentile rank
c. Duncan's multiple-range, Tukey's, or Scheffe's test
d. summative or formative evaluation
c) A "stratum" or s "special characterstic" needs to be represented. IN this case it is race.
In a random sample each individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected. Selection is by chance. In a new study, however, it will be important to include 20% African Americans. What type of sampling procedure will be necessary?
a. Standard (i.e. simple) random sampling is adequate
b. Cluster sampling is called for
c. Stratified sampling would be best
d. Horizontal sampling is required
A researcher studies a single session of counseling in which a cousnelor treats a client's phobia using a paradoxical strategy. He then writes in his research report that pradox is the treatment of choice for phobics. This is an example of
a. deductive logic or reasoning
b. inductive logic or reasoning
c. attrition or so called experimental mortality
d. construct validity
a) Restraining helps overcome resistance by suggesting that it might be best if the family does not change!
A strategic family therapist says to a family, "I don't know what else you can do to stop the bickering and fighting in your home." This is an example of
b. quid pro quo
d) variable ratio. Just for the record, choice "b", fixed interval or FI is the most ineffective of the bunch.
The most difficult intermitten schedule to extinguish is the
a. fixed ratio (ie; giving a child an M&M for each five math problems she completes)
b. fixed interval (ie: paycheck - 1 time per week)
c. variable interval
d. variable ratio
A counselor utilizes role-playing combined with a hierarchy of situations in which the client is nonassertive. Assertiveness trainers refer to this as
a. conscious rehearsal
b. behavioral rehearsal
c. fixed role therapy
d. a. and b.
A counselor has an obese client imagine that he is terribly sick after eating a high-caloric, high-fat meal. The client then imagines a pleasant scene in which his eating is desirable. This technique is called:
a. behavioral rehearsal
b. in vivo sensitization
c. covert sensitization
d. in vivo desensitization
d) Schools Without Failure (Glasser also wrote choice a. and b.)
Glasser's theory was popularized in educational circles after he wrote
a. Choice Theory
b. The Interpretation of Dreams
c. Positive Addiction
d. Schools Without Failure
c) Interest inventories work best with individuals who are of high school age or above inasmuch as interests are not extremely stable prior to that time. Interests become quite stable around age 25.
An interest inventory would be least valid when used with
a. a first-year college student majoring in philosphy
b. a third-year college student majoring in physics
c. an eight-grade male with an IQ of 136
d. a 46 year old White male construction worker
c) Calculated simply by taking: 106-3=103 and 106+3=109. HINT: your exam could refer to this as the 68% confidence interval (ie: 103-109)
A new IQ test has a standard error of measurement of 3. Tom scores 106 on the test. If he takes the test a lot, we can predict that about 68% of the time
a. Tom will score between 100 and 103
b. Tom will score between 100 and 106
c. Tom will score between 103 and 109
d. Tom will score higher than Betty who scored 139.
c) Type I/Type II: when one goes up the other goes down.
If a researcher changes the significance level from .05 to .001, then
a. alpha and beta errors will increase
b. alpha errors increase but beta errors decrease
c. alpha errors decrease; however, beta errors increase
d. This will have no impact on Type I and Type II errors
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