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The tendency for our expectations to evoke responses that confirm what we originally anticipated is called
The basic idea behind symbolic interactionism is that:
humans construct meaning in their lives through the use of shared symbols
Mead believed that the best way to study the phenomena we now know today as symbolic interactionism is through
According to Mead, humans have a unique capacity to
For interactionalists, what is required in order for the self to develop?
The looking-glass self is best defined as
the mental image that results from taking the role of the other.
For Mead, the generalized other represented:
a composite mental image of others’ actions and expectations
Erving Goffman's metaphor of dramaturgical performance means that
people are involved in a constant negotiation with others to publicly define their identities and the
nature of the situation.
the impression of reality fostered by a performance is a delicate, fragile thing.
identity is socially constructed.
What term is used to explain how we may limit out thinking by unintentionally “filling in the blanks” such as assigning a gender to a neutral noun?
An inner dialogue used to test alternatives, rehearse action, and anticipate reactions before overtly responding is called
Symbolic interactionism has been faulted because
it may overstate the importance of language to personhood.
The person who coined the term symbolic interactionism was
Social constructionists emphasize
That the events and objects of the social world are made rather than found.
For the CMM theorist(s), what is the highest virtue of a theory?
Practical utility: A useful theory
Dialogic communication means that you
Speak in a way that others can and will listen, and listen in a way that others can and will speak.
An impressive macrotheory of face-to-face communication.
The most comprehensive statement of social constructionism crafted by communication theorists
The hierarchy-serpentine model suggests that
Even a “simple” conversation is an incredibly complex and open-ended process.
According to CMM, the cosmopolitan communicator
Calls to mind a citizen-of-the-world who interacts comfortably with people who come from diverse cultural backgrounds.
Assumes that there is no single truth, or if there is, it wears many faces.
Practices a form of discourse similar to—or consistent with—dialogic communication.
CMM has been criticized because
Pearce and Cronen have not been consistent with their terminology and claims.
The invisible, variable volume of space surrounding an individual that defines that person's preferred distance from others is called
Edward Hall's term for the study of people's use of space as a special elaboration of culture is
The result of a personal audit of likely gains and losses from a breach of expectancy is called
Communicator reward valence is
the sum of the positive and negative attributes that the person brings to the encounter.
the potential the person has to reward or punish in the future.
Samantha would like to ask Lucy a favor. However, Samantha is aware that Lucy is not particularly fond of her and most definitely views her as a nonrewarding (punishing) person. Which of these distances should Samantha stand at to maximize her chances of a positive response?
At the distance Lucy would expect her to stand
Burgoon's EVT has been criticized because it
does not predict future behavior with adequate accuracy.
The strategy Buller and Burgoon label falsification:
According to interpersonal deception theory, strategic requirements of deception:
can produce cognitive overload
According to interpersonal deception theory, when falsely accused or confronted by suspicion, truth tellers
try to tailor their messages to alleviate doubt.
Interpersonal deception theory suggest that
we are not great lie detectors.
A main focus of Altman and Taylor’s social penetration theory is
Self-disclosure, the path to intimacy
To explain self-disclosure, Altman and Taylor compare the human psyche to a(n)
Self-disclosure makes one
The degree of intimacy reflected in a person's discourse is called the
The process of gradually becoming less and less intimate is called
Whenever Simon comes home, his roommate Paul is always there to greet him and ask him how his day was. What is this according to SPT?
It depends—it may be either a reward or a cost based on Simon’s assessment
Psychologist Paul Wright argues that
friendships often reach a point of such closeness that self-centered concerns are no longer salient.
The threshold above which an outcome seems attractive is called the
Social penetration theory has been criticized because
it equates self-disclosure with relational closeness.
Which of the following theories represents a “cues filtered out” interpretation?
Social presence theory
Media richness theory
Walther’s SIP theory describes ___________________ through computer-mediated communication.
According to Walther, over an extended period of time, what will happen to CMC relationships?
They will be similar in intimacy to those developed face-to-face
How do CMC users develop impressions of each other?
Through text and linguistic content of messages
What is the key factor that determines whether a CMC user’s message achieves the level of intimacy that others develop face-to-face?
Length of time
Which cue is the one nonverbal cue that’s not filtered out in CMC?
What is a hyperpersonal relationship?
A relationship that is more intimate than romances or friendships would be if partners were physically together.
Which of the following describes an added benefit of non-synchronous messages when compared to face-to-face interactions?
Messages can be planned, contemplated and edited to be more mindful and deliberate
Baxter and Montgomery are convinced that personal relationships
Are indeterminate processes of ongoing flux.
Which of the following is not one of the dialectical tensions that Baxter and Montgomery address?
Baxter and Montgomery suggest that all people desire to have
Certainty in their relationships.
Novelty in their relationships.
Concealment in their relationships.
According to Baxter, which one of the following dialectics is most central to relationship development?
Simon wants to be connected to his girlfriend, Ginny, but also wants to be autonomous and have his own friends. After his friend Cameron explains dialectical theory to him, Simon begs, “So, how do I get rid of all this tension!” What would Baxter and Montgomery say?
Tensions are inevitable: you don’t get rid of them, you learn to manage them.
The strategy of compartmentalizing different aspects of a relationship is called
Janis says to Roger: “You’ve never really knew me anyway!” What is the content message?
You’ve never really knew me anyway!
Communication that attempts to neutralize power is called
The unspoken agreement of family members to maintain the status quo, however dysfunctional, is called
T/F: The interactional view views the family as a system. In other words, the behavior of each person in the family affects and is affected by the behavior of another.
According to attribution theory, we tend to hold others more responsible
When they aim to improve their position than avoid loss.
Than we hold ourselves.
For not trying than for incompetence.
According to attribution theory, causal inferences are typically
Made at the subconscious level.
The work of Heider and Bem suggest that we
Alter out attitudes to be consistent with our behaviors.
The first stage of attribution theory is
Bem suggests that
We perceive ourselves doing something and then decide what our attitudes are.
Berger assumes that when strangers meet, their primary concern is to
increase predictability about the behavior of themselves and others.
The basic premise or causal mechanism of uncertainty reduction theory is that:
People are motivated to reduce uncertainty in initial interactions
As a person's ability to predict behaviors increases, uncertainty
The two types of uncertainty a person faces are
Behavioral and cognitive questions.
An axiom is a
Self-evident truth that requires no additional proof.
High levels of uncertainty produce
High levels of reciprocity.
Which of the following is not a strategy covered by Berger for reducing uncertainty?
unobtrusive observation strategy
Scholars have added to Berger’s original theory an axiom positing that
Shared communication networks reduce uncertainty.
Uncertainty reduction theory has been criticized because
Theorem 17 and axiom 3 are problematic.
Some research suggests that predicted outcome value more accurately explains communication in early encounters.
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