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Foraging – is the base adaptive strategy. Relies on natural resources rather than controlling plant and animal production.
Agriculture – is labor intensive and property based. Animals are means of production
Pastoralism – Maintenance and cultivation of livestock. Movement oriented, Nomadism; group travels together year round. Transhumance; separate from group on a pastoral journey. Blended some with agriculture.
Horticulture – part time agriculture, not as land intensive as agriculture
Industrialism – Extensive stratification, not as important
They are similarities of adaptive strategies between cultures that do not have contact among them. They are best described by foraging, and within foraging they are band societies (100 or fewer people), structured with nuclear families, and they are Egalitarian (equal) societies where there is not much of a hierarchy (some gender based differences).
- What distinguishes the three "principles of exchange" (market/ redistribution/ reciprocity)?
Market: Dominates today's worlds capitalist economy - Governs the distribution of the means of production - land, labor, natural resources, technology, and capital - Items bought and Sold, using money, with eye to maximize profit Bargaining
Redistribution: - Operates when the goods, services, or their equivalent move from the local level to a center - Production often move through a hierarchy of officials for storage at the center
Reciprocity: - Generalized, Balanced, Negative
What distinguishes the three types of reciprocity along the reciprocity continuum (generalized/ balanced/ negative)?
Generalized- is giving with no specific expectation of exchange. Within own band
Balanced – is exchanges between people who are more distantly related than are members of the same band or household.
Negative – farthest social relationship; dealing with people outside or on the fringes of their social systems, reciprocity is carefully calculated.
- What does the term "potlatch" refer to, according to lecture/ and WOH? Do anthropologists view it as "irrational" economic activity?
People give away food and other things in exchange for prestige. It is a festive event within a regional exchange system among tribes of N Pacific Coast of NA.
- What did the Basseri video clip demonstrate about adaptive strategies?
Pastoralism; small overall group; ADAPTIVE STRATEGIES ARE A WAY OF LIFE;
- Roseberry and the Rise of Yuppie Coffee—basic understanding of what he means by the “shaping of taste,” and what is primary data consists of in the article.
According to Roeberry, one can cultivate and display “taste” and “discrimination.” The expansion of specialty coffees has created a new capitalism and has made coffee the beverage of postmodernism. Consumer culture has transformed coffee production recently due to the different preferences people have. In the past, there weren’t many different varieties of coffee. Coffee was almost always sold in a can and had a very bland taste. Nowadays coffee can be purchased almost everywhere and in different blends/varieties. Coffee has been altered in so many ways. Individuals who may not enjoy the taste of plain coffee are now offered a number of alternatives and flavored coffees.
- How was language connected to politics in lecture?*****
The authority of government determines what language is accepted;
- What does BEV (Black English Vernacular) tell us about language and politics (see Kottak, especially)
While there does not seem to be any difference in the level of comprehension of the different homonyms, because SE is what is spoken in the mass media, in writing, and in most public and professional context, it has more prestige.
- What are phonemes and minimal pairs?
Words that resemble each other in all but one sound; they have different meanings but they differ in only one sound
- Know the Basic distinguishing characteristics of sociopolitical types: Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, States. Are there particularly important "defining" characteristics of each (ie., “office”, “big man,” “village heads” “increased stratification)?
Bands – small groups of fewer than 100 people related by kinship; person in power called “HEAD MAN” who rules informally
Economic type – foraging, egalitarian
Tribes – Economies based on non-intensive food production; live in villages; lack of formal government; BIG MEN or village heads with limited authority.
Economic type – horticulture
Chiefdom – Intermediate form between tribe and state; social relations based on kinship, marriage, decent, age, and gender.
Economic type – Protective horticulture, pastoral nomadism, agriculture
State – formal government structure and socioeconomic stratification; differential access to wealth and resources OFFICE
Economic type- industrialism and agriculture
Bands – lack formal law or figurehead, blood feuds, song battles
Tribes – BIG MEN have ways of promoting social control and well being
Chiefdom – Chiefs have ways of promoting social control
States – Formal laws, codes expected to be followed and judges have trials
Be able to describe three dimensions of stratification: Wealth, Power and Prestige in state systems.
Wealth – includes property such as buildings, lands, farms, houses, factories as well as other assets
Prestige – the respect with which others regard a person or status position
Power – the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others
- What are the consequences of state administration (see slides especially here).
Displace the place of kinship; foster geographic mobility and resettlement; assign differential rights/distinctions
-How are achieved/ ascribed status relevant to political systems according to WOH?
Because the status is achieved through successful endeavors (not given), as well as sharing these successes with others in the tribe/state in order to generate support and gather a following, it is a political action.
- How are governance and power defined (lecture for governance, WOH for power)?
Power is defined by the ability to exercise one’s will over other- to do what one wants. Governance is the conduct of conduct. *******!!!!!
- How is power related to the concept of authority according to WOH and lecture?
Authority is the legitimate or socially approved use of power. Power is the abilitiy to exert ones will over others, while authority is the socially approved use of power
-What do the notions of Weapons of the Weak and Hegemony refer to? Refer especially to WOH here if you are unsure.
Hegemony – a stratified social order in which subordinates comply with domination by internalizing its values and accepting its “naturalness”
-What was the surveillance camera players video clip about?
how how some forms of language/ performance are acceptable within public space, but others, harmless though they may be, are seen as threatening a group of "actors" performed an Orwellian scene in front of a surveillance camera in a subway, and then video taped the monitor where it was being shown upstairs, a monitor placed in public to alert those passing by that they were being watched. I think of the play staged in front of the surveillance camera as a commentary on whether the things we think of as public space are indeed very public.
-In what way does kinship “organize personhood”? (see slides for this)
Defines Obligations; Sense of Belonging; Structures relationships; defines who you can and cannot marry
-What are some of the main points of marriage (see slides for this)?
Dramatic variation in marriage cross-culturally; regulates social links between sexuality/ procreation; serves to socially legitimate children in the social world; Builds alliances establishes connections; plays an important role in regulating descent the transmission of inheritance.
- Bridewealth/ Dowry
Substantial gifts transferred to the husband’s family from the wife’s family after marriage
- Descent Groups: Patrilineal, Matrilineal
Patrilineal - People automatically have a lifetime membership in the father’s group; the children of the all the group’s men join the group, but the children of the female members are excluded.Matrilineal – People join the mother’s family automatically at birth and stay members throughout life; descent groups include only the children of the group’s women.
- Endogamy vs. Exogamy
Endogamy – Seeking a husband or wife within one’s own group
Exogamy – The practice of seeking a husband or wife outside one’s own group (links people into a wider social network)
- What is an apical ancestor?
The person who stands at the apex, or top, of the common genealogy
- Family of Orientation/ Family of Procreation
Family of Orientation- Nuclear family in which one is born and grows up
Family of procreation – Nuclear family established when one marries and has children
- Neolocal, Patrilocal, Matrilocal, residence patterns
Neolocal – Postmarital residence pattern in which a couple establishes a new place of residence rather than living with or near either set of parents
Patrilocal – Customary residence with the husband’s relatives after marriage, so that children grow up in their father’s community
Matrilocal – Customary residence with the wife’s relatives after marriage, so t hat children grow up in their mother’s community
Cross and parallel cousins (lecture slides only)
Cross Cousins – Dad’s sister’s kids; Mom’s brother’s kids
Parallel Cousins – Dad’s brother’s kids; Mom’s sister’s kids
- Plural Marriages: Polygyny/ Polyandry/ Serial Monogamy
Polygyny – Man has more than one wife
Polyandry – A woman has more than one husband
Serial Monogamy – Multiple marriages at one time
-Kinship terminology from lecture slides (also see reference guide on Ctools): What distinguishes lineal, bifurcate merging, generational, and bifurcate collateral kinship?
-Be able to read a basic kinship chart!
Lineal – US system; found in societies in which the nuclear family is the most important group based on kinship; people you can draw a direct connection to; Mother, father, uncle, aunt, etc.; diff. terms for mother’s brother and father’s sister
Generational – Uses the same term for parents and their siblings, but the lump is more complete; does not distinguish between the mother’s and father’s side
Bifurcate Merging – Splits the mother’s side and the fathers side, but merges same sex siblings of each parent; mom and mom’s sisters called by the same name dad and dad’s brothers called by the same name; diff. terms for mother’s brother and father’s sister
Bifurcate Collateral – MOST SPECIFIC; has separate terms for each of the 6 kin types of the parental generation
What is it?
Best-known system of exchange; exchanging shell goods
Who takes part and for what reasons?
Men generally know their Kula partners whose island are closest to them, because they sail to these islands for trade, and they host Kula sailors who arrive. THE VILLAGE CHIEF ORGANIZES A KULA EXPEDITION. Great men help younger ones enter into their Kula career. Profits; Kula shells move through a series of islands on a particular path; white armshell (mwali); red shell necklaces (bagi)
Cannibal Tours video clips: Basic understanding of what the film is about. From Edward Bruner reading, understand the basic argument (see lecture slides as a guide). What does “imperialist nostalgia” refer to?
Follows ecotourists from Europe and America traveling through villages in Papua New Guinea; Driving bargains for local handcrafted items; paying to view formerly sacred ceremonies; taking photographs of primitive life; tourists become dehumanized; experiencing the exotic up close; to see reconstructed object
Imperialist Nostalgia –A longing for same cultural forms that colonialism alters or eradicates.
- Domestic-public dichotomy (public/ private contrasts)
Strong differentiation between the home and the outside world
- Feminization of Poverty
Increasing representation of women (and their children) among America' s poorest people Women head over half of the US households with incomes below the poverty line PERCENTAGE OF FEMALE-HEADED HOUSEHOLDS had been increasing wordwide causes: male migration, civil strife, divorce, abandonment, widowhood...
- Sexual orientation
- Refers to a person's habitual sexual attraction to, and sexual activities with, person of the opposite sex, heterosexuality; the same sex, homosexuality, or both sexes, bisexuality
- Gender roles, stereotypes stratifications-
Gender Roles – The tasks and activities that a culture assigns to each sex; the cultural construction of sexual difference
Gender Stereotypes – Oversimplified but strongly held ideas about the characteristics of males and females.
Gender Stratification – Unequal distribution of rewards between men and women, reflecting their different positions in a social hierarchy
- Matriarchy/ Patriarchy
Matriarchy – Society ruled or controlled by women
Patriarchy – A form of social organization in which a male is the family head and t itle is traced through the male line
Basic viewing comprehension of the short video clips we watched from:
1) Rosie the Rivetera.
1) Barbie Liberation Organization
Cultural jamming; switched voice boxes of GI Joes and Barbies; Performed the surgieries and then returned them to the stores; changing gender stereotypes
Emily Martin (Egg and the Sperm):
- Basic understanding of the analysis she undertakes from the lecture slides should suffice for the in-class exam.
- Perception on menstruation is usually negative and misogynistic. - Martin contends that menstruation is a normal physiological function and process - Such gender bias is also responsible for our tendency to "praise" males for their "amazing" ability to produce a huge amount of sperm - The egg (the women) reinforces our culture's view of passive "damsel in distress" image, while the active sperm races to the egg to penetrate her.
Be familiar with the “major points” associated with the anthropology of religion (see slides here)
Explain the world – Answers questions about how and why the world is the way it is
Validate – Religious beliefs lend moral weight to decisions and rules
Give Meaning – to the events of the world
Orient – Religions give people a stance to take toward the world
Very basic understanding of different social theories of religion (see lecture slides, on Marx, Weber, Durkheim)
Marx – Religious systems will hide the violence of the real relationships on which capitalist production rests
Max Weber – Rational systems will reduce the reliance on supernatural explanations of the world
Emile Durkheim – Religious systems provide functional social integration (may respond to anomie of industrial society)
(Belief that spirits are present in all natural objects) - Earliest form of religion - Belief in spiritual beings Belief in souls or doubles - Originates from the Latin, Anima (where else?
- Magic (imitative/ contagious magic)
Magic - Refers to supernatural techniques intended to accomplish specfic aims; techniques include spells, formulas, and incantation used with deities or with impersonal values
Contagious Magic: Whatever is done to an object is believed to affect a person who once had contact with it Imitative Magic: Used to produce a desired effect by imitating it (voodoo dolls).
- Mana and Taboo
Sacred impersonal force in Melanesian and Polynesian Religions (a sacre impersonal force existing in the universe. Mana can reside in people, animals, plants, and objects). - Melanesians attributed success to Mana, which people could acquire, through one way known as magic
- Monotheistic/ Polytheistic
Monotheistic: Worship of an eternal, omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent Supreme Being...has priesthoods and notions of divine power
Polytheistic: The belief in multiple gods
- Sacred and Profane
Sacred: interests of the group, especially unity, which were embodied in sacred group symbols
Profane: mundane individual concerns
- Ritual/ Rites of passage (separation, liminality, incorporation)
Rituals: Behavior that is formal - stylized, repetitive, and stereotyped, performed earnestly as a social act; held at set time and places - performed in sacred places at set times - SOCIAL acts
Rites of Passage: Customs associated with the transition from one place or stage of life to another Has 3 stages: Separation, liminality, and incorporation - Separation: people withdraw from the group and begin moving from one place or status to another - Liminal Phase: more interesting; period between states, the limbo during which people have left one place or state but havent yet entered or joined the next - people occupy ambiguous social positions - Incorporation: people reenter society having completed the right
- What is a secular ritual?
Routines and rituals of the state; funerals, state dinners, changing of guards, inaugurations
- In "World Systems" theory, what distinguishes the Core, Periphery, and Semi-periphery?
Core: geographic center, the dominant position in the world system, includes the strongest and most powerful nations, sophisticated and mechanized production
Periphery: world's least privileged and powerful countries; economic activities are less mechanized, although some degree of industrialization has reached; produces raw materials, agricultural commodities, and human labor for export to the core and the semiperiphery
Semiperiphery: intermediate; industrialized; export both industrial goods and commodities; lack the power and economic dominance of core nations
- Basic features of world capitalist system (see slides)
Committed to production for sale and exchange
Market principle is dominant culture
Focused on accumulations of capital
An ideological justification for outsiders to guide native peoples in specific directions
- What are the features of neoliberalism as an intervention philosophy?
Current form of the classic economic liberalism laid out in The Wealth of Nations Contemporary intervention philosophy Economic liberalism - lassiez-faire economics; no restrictions on manufacturing, no barriers to commerce, and no tariffs; free enterprise and competition
- Bourgeoisie/ Proletariat
Bourgeoisie: owners of the factories, mines, large farms, and other means of productions Proletariat: working class; made up of people who had to sell their labor to survive ...Industrialization hastened the process of proletarianization
Political, social, economic, cultural domination of a territory and its people over and extended period of time
-What is the case of mining in New Guinea about? How is the University of Michigan implicated in the story?
The mining company was responsible for polluting a river, displacing people and creating environmental catastrophes; the professor stopped researching and became and activist for the people in the area; the mining company just left and handed the property over to the papua new guinea government who did nothing;
- What is meant by communism with a capital C versus with a lower case c?
Communism: social system in which property is owned by the community an in which people work for the common good
Communism: was a political movement and doctrine seeking to overthrow capitalism and to establish a form of communism
-Where does the film take place, who is it about?
Christian missionaries introduced cricket to Trobriand Islanders to discourage war among the natives and they were disturbed by the overt sexual activites Game adapted to Trobriand culture SOCIAL STRUCUTRE - Growing yams is the domain of men - first yam exchange garden of a boy is of great importance - All men linked together around women - Yam and dance competitions - Women manufacture skirts and bundles from banana leaves; are crucial to the trobriand economy and are intricately tied to other forces - Jealousy and sorcery
-In what ways is it an example of syncretism?
Syncretism - Cultural mixes, including religious blends that occur from acculturation the exchange of cultural features when cultures come into continuous firsthand contact
- Film and its set up: We Are All Neighbors, Basic viewing comprehension of what transpires over the course of the documentary, which in this case is a bit complex. What country is the village in? What is the ethnic makeup of the village in the documentary? What are ethnic relationships like in the village when the film starts? What about when the film ends? Basic understanding of how ethnic/national tensions are characterized in the film as they change over the course of the film.
It is set in a traditionally Muslim/Croatian village. The country the film is set in is Bosnia. When the film begins, the ethnic relations are good and the feeling is that the war could not damage their relationships and lives.
-Bringa Reading: See lecture slides/ reading guide for basic signposts to be aware of.
– The new mobilization of already-existing cultural and ethnic identities
– The language of “Ancient Hatreds”
– New rhetoric of “exclusion”
– The manipulation of fear
– The importance of kinship over ethnicity in rural Bosnia
Basic sense of what these terms refer to from WOH and lecture:
- Development Anthropology
Focus on cultural dimensions of economic development
- Why did the Polaroid Corporation’s fight to stop domestic violence come to an end?
Because the women would testify against the photos that showed them battered, would not cast blame on husband/boyfriend.....unintended consequences
- Increased social equity
Means reduced poverty and a more even distribution of wealth
- Overinnovation and Underdifferentiation (how do these relate to culturally compatible or flexible development projects?)
Overinnovation is too much change – people will resist development if the consequence is too much change to their daily lives. Farmers in asia will not grow other crops than rice if they conflict with rice growing.
Underdifferentiation is the tendency to view the “less-developed countries” as more alike than they are. Basically ignoring cultural diversity; in order to have a successful development project one must consider the cultural uniqueness
- What is Urban Anthropology? (WOH only)
Is the cross-cultural and ethnographic study of global urbanization and life in cities
- Uses of Medical anthropology
• Variation in health care systems
• Analyzing Doctor/Patient interactions
• Cross cultural understandings of disease
• Questions of Interpretation and Health
• Fitting Public and Global Health Interventions into Local Cultural Contexts
- Cultural Imperialism
Cultural imperialism refers to the spread or advance of one culture at the expense
of others, or its imposition on other cultures, which it modifi es, replaces, or
destroys—usually because of differential economic or political infl uence.
The offspring of an area who have spread to many lands
Essentialism describes the process of viewing an identity as established, real, and frozen, so as to hide the historical processes and politics within which that identity developed.
When forces from global centers enter new societies
The influence of western expansion on indigenous peoples and their cultures
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