Global Consumer Culture Culture in a globalized context Fiber Optic Cable Myths & Rituals Global Consumer Culture Culture is. . . The accumulation of shared meanings, rituals, norms, and other traditions among the members of an organization or society Culture Values Ideas Attitudes Homogenous group of people Types of Culture Objective Culture Can be easily seen and thus more easily interpreted or understood Cars we drive Clothes we wear Food we eat Subjective Culture Not so easily understood on immediate observation The roles we play The beliefs we hold The values we possess Iceberg Concept of Culture Diffusion of Innovations Diffusion of Innovations Innovators (2.5%) Early Adopters (13.5%) Early Majority (34%) Late Majority (34%) Laggards (16%) Diffusion of Innovations Innovators - venturesome, educated, multiple info sources, greater propensity to take risk Early Adopters - social leaders, popular, educated Early Majority - deliberate, many informal social contacts Late Majority - skeptical, traditional, lower socio-economic status Laggards - neighbors and friends are main info sources, fear of debt Diffusion of Innovations Diffusion of Innovations Consumption People buy products not for what they do, but for what they mean Cultural differences Cultural differences influence the way we, as humans, see the world, interact in the marketplace, and relate to one another. Functional Areas of a Cultural System Aspects of Culture Ecology Social System Ideology World View Ethos Cultural Variability Dimensions of Variability Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Masculinity/Femininity Individualism/ Collectivism Hofstede's Typology Cultural Variability Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Masculinity/Femininity Individualism/Collectivism Level of social inequality and how willing members of a society are to accept authority Degree to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations and have beliefs and institutions that help them avoid uncertainty One sex’s roles are considered superior to the other sex The extent to which the welfare of the individual versus that of the group is valued Values and Norms Values are very general ideas about good and bad goals Norms are rules dictating what is right or wrong Enacted Norms explicitly decided upon rules Crescive Norms embedded in a culture and are discovered through interactions with that culture Customs - norm handed down Mores - custom with strong moral overtone Conventions - norms regarding conduct of daily life Culture Then and Now I Love Lucy Will & Grace Cultural Opposition Subculture Relatively cohesive cultural system that varies in form and substance from the dominant culture Cultural Opposition Counterculture Culturally homogenous group that develops values and norms that differ from the larger society because of their opposition to it Manifestations of Culture Myths & Rituals Rituals A set of symbolic behaviors that occur in a fixed sequence Many rituals are at the heart of consumers’ relationship with their favorite products Ritual Artifacts Many business owe their existence to customers’ need for ritual artifacts such as birthday cakes, diplomas, ceremonial wine, cigars, greeting cards, etc . . . Categories of Consumer Rituals Grooming rituals binary oppositions: private/public and work/leisure Rites of passage separation/liminality/aggregation Gift-giving purchase/presentation/reformulation Culture and Consumption Consumption choices cannot be understood without cultural context “lens” through which people view products Sensitivity comes through understanding underlying issues Culture and Consumption A consumer’s culture determines the priorities the consumer attaches to activities and products Will determine success or failure Product benefits must be consistent with culture Culture and Consumption A successfully designed “new” product will be a reflection of dominant cultural ideals of that period TV dinners Cosmetics made with no animal testing ipods Sacred and Profane Consumption Sacred Consumption Involves objects and events that are “set apart” from normal activities and are treated with some degree of respect or awe Profane Consumption Involves consumer objects and events that are ordinary, everyday objects and events that do not share the “specialness” of sacred ones Sacred and Profane Consumption Sacralization Ordinary events or products are accorded special significance by culture Desacralization Sacred events or products are stripped of special status and/or reproduced in mass quantities Ritual Photo Essay Myths & Rituals Your Consumption Rituals? This morning: What products did you use? Are some of these brands that you regularly use? Are some of these brands that you feel loyal to?