Because criminologists are influenced by many disciplines (e.g., sociology, psychology, political science, natural science), the field of criminology is considered
Caesar Beccaria, in the 1700s, was one of the first scholars to develop a systematic understanding of why people commit crime. Beccaria believed in the concept of _____, the idea that people want to achieve pleasure and avoid pain.
"Let the punishment fit the crime" refers to which criminological school of thought?
The "father of criminology" and the man who referred to offenders as "born criminals" was
The _____ was a group of urban sociologists who examined how neighborhood conditions, such as poverty levels, influenced crime rates. Their sociological vision transformed into social structure theory.
The writings of Karl Marx have had a great impact on _____, which faults the economic system for producing the conditions that lead to high crime rates.
A deviant act becomes a crime when it is deemed socially harmful or dangerous
and is defined, prohibited, and punished under criminal law
Which concept of crime implies that crimes are behaviors that all members of society consider to be repugnant, be they rich and powerful or poor and powerless?
the consensus view of crime
Mala in se crimes such as murder and rape reflect which view of crime?
the consensus view of crime
Mala prohibitum crimes, such as traffic offenses and gambling violations, change according to social conditions and attitudes. Criminal law is used to codify these changes, reflecting which purpose of law?
expressing public opinion and morality
The most famous set of written laws of the ancient world was a code based on punishment via physical retaliation, "an eye for an eye," but the severity of punishment was dependent on one's class standing. This code was known as
the Code of Hammurabi
The Uniform Crime Report is a primary source of crime data collected by the
Federal Bureau of Investigation
What shortcoming in the UCR is addressed by the National Crime Victimization survey?
the nonreporting issue
Survey research involves ____-the process of selecting for study a limited number of subjects who are representative of entire groups sharing similar characteristics, called the population.
According the the 2008 Monitoring the Future survey
the crime problem is greater than the UCR and NCVS indicate
Referring to the ecology of crime, when is crime most likely to happen?
on July 1st with a temperature of 80 degrees
Referring to the ecology of crime, which of the following settings has the highest violent crime rate?
an urban area in the south
Which of the following statements lends support to liberal feminist theory?
Female arrest rates are increasing
_____ suggests that as the African-American population increases, so does the amount of social control directed at them. This type of racism could account for the higher rates of minority crime in UCR data.
Racial threat theory
Which of the following is not a key predicative factor for chronicity?
adequate parental supervision and control
The long-term stress associated with crime victimization resulting in depression, anxiety, flashbacks, and recurring nightmares is called
post-traumatic stress disorder
Being abused or neglected as a child _____ the odds of being arrested, both as a juvenile and as an adult.
Victims of crime, especially childhood abuse, are more likely to commit crime themselves. This abuse-crime phenomenon is termed
the cycle of violence
Why are schools the locale of a great deal of victimization?
Because schools are populated by teenage males
The elderly are most often victims of a narrow band of crimes that includes
_____ refers to a victim's physical weakness or psychological stress that renders then incapable of resisting or deterring crime.
Tom has been repeatedly victimized while wearing the home team's football jersey while sitting on the visiting team's side of the football field. What aspect of repeat victimization accounts for Tom's troubles?
Which victimization theory claims that victims may initiate, either actively or passively, the confrontation that leads to their victimization?
victim precipitation theory
The view that victimization results from the interaction of three everyday factors: the availability of suitable targets, the absence of capable guardians, and the presences of motivated offenders is called
routine activities theory
Counselors who help victims to understand the operations of the criminal justice system, who guide victims through the justice process, and who may provide transportation to and from court are called
At the end of the 19th century, the popularity of the classical approach began to decline as _____ criminologists focused their attention on internal and external factors - such as poverty, IQ, and education - rather than personal choice and decision making.
Crime is _____ because criminals will react selectively to the characteristics of an individual criminal act.
That thieves select German cars indicates that auto theft is rational because
German cars usually have high-quality audio equipment
Sociologist Jack Katz argues that there are situational inducements to criminality that directly precede the commission of crime and draw offenders into law violations. Katz term these inducements the
seductions of crime
The "high" or the excitement/exhilaration of successfully executing illegal activities in dangerous situations is referred to as
Marcus Felson argues that the risk of crime may be increased by improving the effectiveness of ____.
Situational crime prevention tactics generally fall into one of four categories. Which of the following is not one of those categories?
increasing the use of probation for committing crime
The concept of general deterrence holds that
the decision to commit crime can be controlled by the threat of criminal punishment
People who believe that they will be caught if they commit crime are the ones most likely to be deterred from committing criminal acts. What element of deterrence does this reflect?
certainty of punishment
If more criminals are sent to prison, the incarceration rate should go down. This is referred to as
the incapacitation effect
_____ reflects the view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological or psychological traits.
Diet, hormones, and contaminants are the causes of behavior in the ____ perspective
Which of the following is NOT considered to contribute to a healthy diet and, thus, good mental health and well-adjusted behavior patterns?
heavy metals such as lead and mercury
_____, the most abundant androgen, has been linked to criminality.
Locations with the highest concentrations of lead also report the highest levels of
Brain structure, brain damage, and brain chemicals are the causes of behavior in the _____ perspective.
Many ADHD children also suffer from ____ and continually engage in aggressive and antisocial behavior early in childhood
Evidence exists that indicates abnormally low levels of brain chemical compounds called _____ are associated with violent behavior.
According to ____, for a variety of genetic and environmental reasons, people's brains function differently in response to environmental stimuli.
Social learning theory holds that
people learn to be aggressive through their life experiences
____ are segments of the population whose members have a relatively similar portion of desirable belongings, and who share attitudes, values and norms.
Oscar Lewis argues that the crushing lifestyle of lower-class areas produces ____ that is passed on from one generation to the next
a culture of poverty
Which theory focuses on the urban conditions, such as high unemployment and school dropout rates, to explain crime?
social disorganization theory
Strain theory holds that crime is a function of
conflict between people's goals and means
Social disorganization theory was popularized by the work of two Chicago sociologists:
Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay
Cohesive communities with high levels of social control and social integration and where people develop interpersonal ties are also likely to develop
Judith and Peter Blau developed the concept of _____, the idea that anger and mistrust results from perceptions of inequality that lead lower-class people to feel deprived and embittered in comparison with those more affluent.
____ reflects the view that multiple sources of strain interact with an individual's emotional traits and responses to criminality.
General strain theory
Subcultural values are handed down from one generation to the next in a process called
Cloward and Ohlin's classic work, Delinquency and Opportunity combined strain and social disorganization principles to explain
Social process theories share one basic concept. Which is it?
All people, regardless of their race, class, or gender, have the potential to become delinquents or criminals.
Social reaction theory suggests that
people become criminals when significant members of society label them as such
____ refers to a style of parenting with parents who are supportive and who effectively control their children in a non-coercive way.
Edwin Sutherland's differential association theory states that
criminal behavior is learned like any other behavior
The process of ____ refers to moving in and out of delinquency or shifting between conventional and deviant values.
Travis Hirschi states that the social bonds a person maintains with society are divided into four main elements. Which of the following is NOT one of these elements?
In its purest form, _____ theory argues that even crimes such as murder, rape, and assault are only bad or evil because people label them as such
According to Lemert, ____ involves norm violations or crimes that have little influence on the actor and, therefore, can be quickly forgotten
The boyhood friend of a convicted murderer is interviewed by the media and reports that the offender was withdrawn, suspicious, and negativistic as a youth. This is an example of
_____ is a process whereby secondary deviance pushes offenders out of the mainstream of society and offenders begin their escalating cycle of deviance.
According to conflict theorists, societal conflict promotes crime by
creating a social atmosphere in which the law is a mechanism for controlling have-not members of society
The publication of Taylor, Walton, and Young's ______ in 1973 gave a powerful boost to the conflict view and created a tradition for critical criminologists to question the role criminology plays in supporting the status quo and aiding the oppression of the poor and powerless
The New Criminology
Profits produced by the laboring classes are accrued by business owners who use these profits for reinvestment or to enrich themselves. This key crime-producing effort of modern corporate capitalism is termed
Critical theorists question the altruism of multi-national corporations and, therefore, take a very skeptical view of
Supranational criminology is a specialization of critical theory that focuses on which type of crimes?
____ describes the anti-social behaviors that arise from efforts to maintain governmental power or to uphold the race, class, and gender advantages of those who support the government.
State (organized) crime
What is the key difference between instrumental theorists and structural theorists?
structural theorists focus on anyone who threatens the capitalist system
Mainstream criminologists level a number of criticisms against critical criminology. Which is not one of those criticisms?
Critical theorists focus too heavily on the problems and conflicts that exist in socialist countries
_____ reflects a critical perspective that explains both the exploitation of women and women's criminality in terms of gender inequality and patriarchy.
Peacemaking criminologists view the efforts of the state to punish and control crime as
encouraging crime rather than discouraging it
The integrative methodology in the early research of _____ formed the basis of today's developmental approach
Eleanor Glueck and Sheldon Glueck
Developmental theories attempt to provide a natural history of criminal careers by encompassing
its onset, continuation, and termination
How do life course theorists view criminality?
as a dynamic process
Because they combine personal, social, socialization, cognitive, and situational factors, life course theories are described as
Using data from a longitudinal study of Pittsburgh youth, Loeber identified distinct pathways to crime. Which pathway begins at an early age with stubborn behavior?
the authority conflict pathway
Bacon and Paternoster identified this pathway to crime characterized by staying out of trouble during adolescence, until late in one's teenage years, then becoming violent chronic offenders.
the late bloomer pathway
Why is early onset an important factor in crime?
Because early onset of antisocial behavior predicts later and more serious criminality
Life course theorists examine offending patterns and trends. Terrie Moffit describes adolescent-limited offenders as
Sampson and Laub's research indicates that building ______ and strong social bonds reduces the likelihood of long-term deviance
Which of the following is NOT one of the significant life-changing events that reduces criminality, according to Laub and Sampson?
buying a car
Laub and Sampson identify life events that enable adult offenders to desist from crime. Accordingly, they identify transitions as short-term events embedded in
According to latent trait theory, when does a latent trait appear?
at birth or soon after
According to the general theory of crime, being adventuresome, physical, and self-centered are all signs that a person possess
Critics of the GTC argue that white-collar criminals and organized crime bosses
seem more calculating than impulsive
Ineffective families have been linked to persistent violent offending. Which is not a factor characteristic of an ineffective family?
Sigmund Freud believed that human aggression and violence are produced by instinctual drives. ______ is the death instinct that is sometimes expressed externally as violence or internally as suicide and alcoholism.
The common law definition of rape derives from the Latin word rapere meaning ______ and is defined as "the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will."
to take by force
Diana Russel's concept of the virility mystique reflects which causal factor of why men commit rape?
In the 1991 case of Michigan v. Lucas, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the validity of _____ - laws that protect women from being questioned about their sexual history unless it directly bears on the case.
First-degree murder occurs when a person kills another after _____ and deliberation.
During the eighteenth century _____ moved freely in sparsely populated areas and transported stolen goods, such as gems, gold, and spices, without paying tax or duty.
In the 18th century skilled thieves found in larger cities, such as London and Paris, congregated in _____ - public meeting places, often taverns that served as gang headquarters.
Criminologists suspect that, of the millions of property and theft-related crimes that occur each year, most are committed by
Which theft offenders do not delude themselves by using elaborate rationalizations such as "shoplifting doesn't really hurt anyone?"
_____ criminals often deny their criminality. These offenders are most likely to respond to the general deterrent effect of the law.
Cargo thieves are professionals who work in highly organized groups and employ specialists, such as _____, who physically move the goods and work with drivers to transport stolen merchandise from docks.
The definition of larceny evolved with the growth of manufacturing and the development of
the free enterprise system
How a larceny is committed can affect its definition. It is automatically considered grand larceny to
steal a firearm from a home or car
Sometimes adolescents are coerced into shoplifting by older peers. This type of shoplifter is termed a
Why have shoplifting incidents increased dramatically in the past twenty years?
Because popular retailers rely on highly visible merchandise displays to attract purchasers
To promote the arrest of amateur and professional shoplifters, a number of states have passed ____ laws that are designed to protect retailers and their employees from lawsuits stemming from improper or false arrests of suspected shoplifters.
The "swoop and squat," the drive down, the sideswipe, and the t-bone are forms of what type of crime?
third party fraud
An acquaintance stole a Dodge Charger and drove around for a few hours showing off the Charger and acting like its owner. What type of amateur auto theft did your acquaintance commit?
A new form of professional auto theft is called ____ and involves stealing VIN plates from a luxury auto on a dealer lot and placing the stolen VIN plate on an identical luxury vehicle stolen from a mall or parking lot.
Female and male burglars show similar offending patterns but specific gender differences do exist. Which is one of those differences?
Female burglars are more likely to work with a partner
Crimes of the marketplace are referred to as ______ crime and include white-collar crime, cyber crime and organized crime
In the late 1930s, the distinguished criminologist ______ first used the phrase "white-collar crime" to describe the criminal activities of the rich and powerful.
_____ involves illegal activities of people and institutions whose acknowledged purpose is profit through legitimate business transactions
A pyramid scheme is one type of ____ whereby people use their institutional or business position to trick others out of their money
One form of ____ involves "payola" - record companies paying radio stations to play songs without making listeners aware of the bribes.
"Ping-ponging," "gang visits," and "steering" are forms of which type of white-collar crime?
health care fraud
In 1907, sociologist E.A. Ross described the "criminaloid:" a business leader who, while enjoying immunity from the law, victimized an unsuspecting public. Today, Ross's criminaloid refers to one who commits
According to the _____ view, some business organizations promote white-collar criminality in the same way that lower-class culture encourages the development of juvenile gangs and street crimes
Travis Hirschi and Michael Gottfredson claim white-collar crime is relatively rare because, as a matter of course, business executives tend to hire people with _____
Your friend committed a _____ when he flooded an internet site with emails and made the website "crash" because the company refused to pay him a bribe.
Your friend has listed an item for sale online that he does not possess. He "sells" the item and keeps the money. What cyber crime has your friend committed?
The IT revolution has revitalized the porn industry. What do we know about adult entertainment on the web?
All of these things are known about adult entertainment on the web
When someone illegally obtains software and then "cracks" or "rips" it and posts it on the Internet for others to use, the resulting pirated software is called
Some identity theft thieves create emails that look legitimate but are designed to gain access to a victim's personal information. This is a/an _______ scheme.
Cyber criminals who engage in cyber vandalism are often motivated by _____
The _____ is the view that organized crime is a direct offshoot of a criminal society -- the mafia -- that first originated in Italy and Sicily
alien conspiracy theory
The evolution of organized crime has led to the ____, a FBI tool that focuses on criminal enterprise and investigates the structure of criminal enterprise groups
enterprise theory of investigation
_____ are behaviors outlawed because they are a threat to the general well-being of society and challenge accepted moral principles
Public order crimes
People who seek to control or criminalize deviant behaviors in accordance with their own way of thinking are called
The movement to ban gay marriage in California that led to the passage of Proposition 8 is an example of a/an
Of all the commonly practiced paraphilias, which causes the general public the most concern?
Your neighbor obtains sexual pleasure from spying on strangers while they disrobe. This neighbor is a/an
_____ is a disturbing behavior whereby men travel overseas to places such as Thailand in order to engage in illicit sexual behavior with young girls who have been sold into prostitution
Which category of prostitute is believed to be responsible for the recent upsurge in prostitution?
The aristocrats of prostitution are _____ who charge customers thousands of dollars per night and who may net over $200,000 per year
The _____ Amendment right to free speech makes legal control of pornography quite difficult
Who are the most visible agents of the criminal justice process?
Community policing is a philosophy of policing that requires police officers to become agents of change by working with neighborhood residents to prevent crime. What is known about community policing?
Community policing has lowered neighborhood crime rates
When the U.S. Supreme Court hands down a/an _____ the ruling influences the everyday operating procedures of police agencies, trial courts, and corrections institutions
District attorneys, state attorneys general and the United States Attorney General are all
The _____ is an attorney employed by the government to provide free legal counsel to indigent offenders
Providing counsel to indigent offenders is prompted by the _____ Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which provides the accused with the right to have the assistance of defense counsel
The federal court system has three tiers. Which courts are the trial courts of the federal system?
U.S district courts
Which legal disposition is the most common correctional treatment given to offenders?
Which of the following orderings most accurately depicts the criminal justice process?