Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
What were the supporters of a strong national government called?
Thomas Jefferson - who was Washington's Secretary of State
Alexander Hamilton - Washington's Secretary of the Treasury
Jefferson's party was the Republicans (named in honor of the French Revolution)
Hamilton's was the Federalists
Resulted in Washington's use of the military to enforce payment of excise tax on whisky.
Hamilton's economic program - in particular, the creation of a National Bank, and the federal government having the power to impose excise taxes and tariffs
WAKE UP CDCB
An excise tax is a tax on goods for sale within a country, like within the US
A tariff is a tax on imports -- goods produced in another country and brought into the US -- and exports -- goods produced in US and sold to other countries
The point is Hamilton wanted, and got, very broad taxing power for US Governament
Jefferson: very strict construction of the Constitution - the Federal govenment only has powers spelled out in the Constitution; the powers not spelled out are for the states
Hamilton: very loose construction
strict: Federal government powers are narrow
loose: Federal government powers are broad
The French had been seizing American ships in neutral waters - the US opposed
As a condition for stopping seizing US ships, the French demanded a bribe from the US government
They had three motives: God, Glory, and Gold
What federal laws restricted free speech and immigration to the US during the undeclared war with France? When were they passed?
The Alien and Sedition Acts
What was the primary significance of the Election of 1800?
Resulted in a tie in the Electoral College but was resolved in House of Representatives
Showed that it was possible to peacefully transfer power from one party to another even though there was a tie in Electoral College
When John Marshall was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, what was the general trend of Court decisions?
What was the significance of Marbury v. Madison Supreme Court decision?
When did it occur?
Strengthened loose constructionist view of Constitution
Specifically, increased power of judicial review - the Supreme Court can declare a law unconstitutional
1. The National Bank was constitutional (loose constructionist view)
2. A state government cannot tax an agency of the federal government
1. William Lloyd Garrison - The Liberator
2. Harriet Beecher Stowe - Uncle Tom's Cabin
It strengthened American industry
It destroyed the Federalist Party
It increased the spirit of Nationalism
1. the use of interchangeable parts, introduced by Eli Whitney
2. the role of the National Bank, which stabilized the value of US currency
3. the Protective Tariff, which was a US tax on imports to protect American manufacturers from foreign competition, which allowed them to thrive
In the 1820s
1. Movement of settlers to the West
2. The demand from Eastern Markets for farm goods from the West and the need to move these goods more efficiently
Note: the South was a farm (agrarian) economy so tariffs had a major influence on their economy and slavery was essential to the efficient operation of their farm economy so abolition of slavery would have severely undermined their economic well being
A state may repeal any federal law it deems unconstitutional
Note: this goes right back to a strict constructionist view of the Constitution championed by Jefferson Republicans who were based on a farm or agrarian economy
1. It admitted Missouri (West) as a slave state
2. Maine was admitted as a free state as a compromise
3. it banned slavery forever above the 36'30 parallel
the Mexican Government abolished slavery
it also restricted the power of Texans' local government
1. California Gold Rush
2. New Mexico (duh... can you remember this one?)
3. Utah (remember this is also where the Mormons settled when they moved west to establish their religion)
It admitted California as a free state
it allowed popular sovereignty (a vote by the local people) to settle the question of slavery in Utah and New Mexico
The issue of slavery in a new territory should be decided by the settlers of that territory
Used in the Comprimise of 1850 for New Mexico and Utah (remember, California was admitted as a free state as part of the Compromise)
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Harriet Beecher Stowe
2. The Kansas-Nebraska Act (I really hope you got this one)
1. More industrial resources - which meant more factories and shipyards for weapons and war equipment
2. Greater financial resources, particularly gold and silver to back paper money
3. Larger population which meant a greater ability to mobilize soldiers
1. Better trained Generals than the North
2. Southern Soldiers were better motivated because they were defending their homeland
1. The British decided to remain neutral rather than joining with the South
2. After Antietam, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation
3. After Gettysburg, the South never recovered really and was on a course to losing the war
What was the purpose of the Emancipation Proclamation?
1. George S. McClellan - fired by Lincoln after Antietam
2. Ulysses S. Grant - made overall general after Vicksburg
3. William T. Sherman - led the "march to the sea" through Georgia which devastated the South
1. Robert E. Lee, who initially opposed Southern secession but remained loyal to the South
2. Stonewall Jackson, who was an inspiration for the Confederacy at Battle of First Manassas
the Declaration of Independence
1. Slavery was abolished
2. North's economy took off
3. the Federal Government was supreme over the states
1. New England (raising livestock, fishing) Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maine (part of Massachusetts)
2. Middle Colonies (raising wheat and other grain) New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware
3. Southern Colonies (wheat, corn, tobacco, rice, indigo) Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina
Rhode Island was founded by dissenters escaping persecution by the Puritans in Massachusetts.
In the Middle Colonies, religious tolerance prevailed and there were multiple religious groups. Quakers in Pennsylvania. Huegonots and Jews in New York. Presbyterians in New Jersey.
Sugar Act of 1764 imposed new taxes on trade and required accused smugglers to prove their innocence.
Currency Act of 1764 banned the use of paper money.
The Stamp Act of 1765 imposed a direct tax on printed materials.
The Revenue Act of 1767 which was one of the Townshend Acts, named after British Minister of Exchequer (which is England's Secretary of the Treasury).
The Revenue Act imposed taxes on glass, lead, paper, paint and tea imported by the colonies. Violaters were tried in vice-admiralty courts which did not have juries and did not abide by many of principles of English common law - like the British could seize property with following due process and the Act permitted writs of assistance.
1. British killings of colonists ("shot heard round the world") at Lexington inflamed colonial opposition.
2. At Concord, the colonists used "guerrila" tactics against British military formations, demonstrating the British could be defeated militarily.
3. By May 1775, the colonial militia had surrounded Boston trapping the British.
4. Led to massive military effort by the British launching full-scale war.
Paul Revere's ride was to warn the colonists about British plans for Lexington.
Saratoga ended on October 17, 1777 when British General Gates surrendered. It was the turning point in the war and led to France's entry to support the colonists.
Yorktown ended on October 19, 1781 when General Cornwallis surrendered. This was the end of the Revolutinary War and led to the Treaty of Paris -- the peace treaty between Britian and America and France.
Articles of Confederation.
The Rebellion was by the farmers against the wealthy landowners when a recession caused the farmers economic hardship and led to foreclosures on many farms. The wealthy saw this as a sign that the national government or republic was at risk.
1. The Great Compromise or Connecticut Compromise: proposed by Roger Sherman; 2 houses of Congress - House of Representatives would have states delegates based on state's population; Senate would have 2 representatives from each state. This satisfied both large and small states.
2. Compromise on slavery. For purposes of state representatives and taxes, every 5 slaves in a state would count as 3 free people. 3/5 Compromise.
3. Creation of 3 branches of government with Separation of Powers (Checks and Balances): Executive (President), Legislative and Judiciary. Compromise between people who believed these functions should be performed by decisions of states (Articles of Confederation) and people who wanted strong central government.
4. Agreement to have a Bill of Rights: Compromise for Federalists and the Anti-Federalists.
1. Representation of the people based on state population and 2 for each state.
2. Separation of Powers with Checks and Balances in National Government
3. Framework for limited National Government where cental government could raise military, levy taxes and regulate interstate commerce and the state governments were reserved other powers
4. Principle of Compromise: willingness to find compromises on key issues between larger and smaller states, wealthy landowners and those who were not
They protect the rights of individuals from actions by the federal government.
Specifically protected are: freedom of religion and there will be no state religion, freedom of speech, the right to petition, the right to bear arms, no searches and seizures without a warrant, people cannot be forced to keep troops in their homes, the government must abide by due process, people have a right to a speedy trial by jury and a lawyer, no cruel and unusual punishment
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!