Working With Dairy Cattle Objectives Where is the US industry? How big is it? What are the breeds of dairy cows in the US? How are calves born and cared for? How are milking cows cared for? Raised Housed Fed How are they milked? How is food safety insured? How are cows bred? Issues in the dairy industry Scope of the Industry Total Milk Production in 2007 US: 185,602 million Iowa: 4,278 million Number of Cows in 2007 US: 9.158 million Iowa: 213,000 Average Production per Cow in 2007 US: 20,267 pounds Iowa: 20,085 pounds Scope of the Industry Average # of Cows per Farm US: 155 cows Iowa: 100 cows Do you think farm size is increasing or decreasing? Why? Change in Dairy Production Decrease in number of farms Increase in milk production Change in Dairy Production Decrease in number of cows Increase in production per cow Where are the Dairy Cows? Iowa is ranked 12th in Milk Production. Westward Shift Making the Most Progress Dairy production has made the most progress of any species Due to: Use of AI Record system in place for over 100 years Production information Genetic information One of two species that measures daily output The Production Cycle Calf Rearing Weaning/ Heifer Development Breeding Transition Calving Lactation Dry Cow Major dairy Breeds Ayrshire Scotland US 1822 Weight: 1200 Avg. Milk production Reddish brown & White color Excellent Udders Brown Swiss Switzerland (oldest) U.S. 1869 2nd highest in milk production Great grazers Brown/light brown Jersey Channel Island U.S. 1850 Smallest stature Milk production=Avg. High butterfat content in milk Heat-tolerant Gray/fawn/black Guernsey Channel Island U.S. 1830 1100 pounds Avg. milk production Yellow colored milk High Beta carotene Tan/white Milking shorthorns England U.S. late 1800?s 1350 pounds Lowest milk production since initially developed as dual purpose breed Red/white/roan Less than 0.5% of dairy cows Holsteins Holland U.S. 1795 90% of all dairy cows Highest for milk production 1500 pounds 2 color patterns Black and White Red and White Crossbreeding Recently a lot of interest in using both domestic and European breeds Main reason for interest: Benefits of hybrid vigor Increases health and fertility Getting cows that breed back quickly is a problem for many producers Health improvement ? usually measured by somatic cell count (SCC) Also see lower culling rates LA-Foster Blackstar Lucy 607 (NC) 6-3 365d 3X 75,275 milk 1738 (2.3%) fat 2164 (2.9%) protein Averaged 24 gallons of milk produced every day for 365 days World Record Holder Lifetime production record is over 450,000 lbs. of milk (18 year old cow with 13 lactations) Averaged over 35,000 lbs/lactation Calf Management Critical! High quality Colostrum Separate from dam Navel Dip Weigh Milk Replacer Calf Starter Free choice water Colostrum First milk secreted by mammals Form of passive immunity Contains greatest amounts of antibodies within the first few hours after parturition Colostral antibodies are farm-specific Also provides: Energy Growth factors Separate From Dam When should calves be separated? ASAP! Why? BIOSECURITY Avoid fecal-oral contact Hand feed colostrum must have 4 quarts within first 24 hours! Feed 2 quarts within first 2 hours Milk Replacer Nutritional supplement to dry feed Provides nutrients until rumen develops and can utilize nutrients from dry feeds Commonly fed at a rate of one pound per head per day until weaning Waste milk and colostrum can minimize expenses PASTEURIZE prior to feeding! Calf Starter Begin rumen development Should be available to calf during first week Replaced daily Contain 18-20% protein Coarse texture with minimal fines to reduce dustiness Softer pellets Molasses can be added up to 7.5% to increase palatability Free Choice Water Factor in stimulating rumen development Should be available from birth Calves easily dehydrate Crucial for maintaining a normal rumen environment Increases dry matter intake Separate From Dam vs. Weaning Weaning Weaning from milk and changing calf diet When should calves be weaned? Based on starter consumption (intake-based) Housing Calf hutches Isolation Easy to manage Durable Expensive! Calf Condos Nose to nose contact can be a problem Permanent= pathogen load Inexpensive Heifer development Why bother? Heifers are the future genetics of herd Rations Must have appropriate rations to get proper growth and body conditioning Don?t want short, overweight calves Housing Want to keep in smaller groups where competition is kept to a minimum so can achieve adequate growth Vaccination Program essential to raising healthy calves and for disease control Heifer Breeding When to breed? Typically 13-15 months old Depends on size Don?t want to breed if too small Don?t want heifer overweight when she calves Transition 2-3 weeks before and after calving Should have separate rations appropriate for transition cows Common disorders: Dystocia DA Milk fever Low blood calcium ?305 2X ME? Lactation What does 305 mean? What does ME mean? What does 2X mean? What is a typical ?305 2X ME? record? What are the components of ?milk?? Lactation Period of milk production Ideally want a 10 month lactation 305 2x ME 305 stands for 305 days in milk 2x stands for the cow being milked 2x a day ME stands for Mature Equivalent Typical Record Depends on the breed Lactation Milk components Water 87% Solids 13% Protein Fat Lactose Other solids Cow's Milk Breed Table 4. Gross composition of milk of various breeds, g/100g. Body Wt. Milk Yield Fat Protein Lactose Ash Total Solids (kg) (kg) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Holstein 640 7360 3.54 3.29 4.68 0.72 12.16 Brown Swiss 640 6100 3.99 3.64 4.94 0.74 13.08 Ayrshire 520 5760 3.95 3.48 4.60 0.72 12.77 Guernsey 500 5270 4.72 3.75 4.71 0.76 14.04 Jersey 430 5060 5.13 3.98 4.83 0.77 14.42 Shorthorn 530 5370 4.0 3.32 4.89 0.73 12.9 Holstein: 12.16% T.S. x 7360 kg/lactation = 895 kg of total solids produced/lactation (140% of her body wt.!) Jersey: 14.42% T.S. x 5060 kg/lactation = 730 kg of total solids produced/lactation (170% of her body wt.!) Milk Composition Species Total solids Fat Protein Lactose Cow Holstein Jersey Human Horse Pig Sheep Whale 12.5 15.0 12.5 11.0 19.6 19.9 57.2 3.5 5.5 4.4 1.6 8.3 8.2 42.3 3.0 3.9 1.0 2.7 5.4 5.8 12.2 4.8 4.8 7.0 6.1 5.0 4.8 1.3 Management Issues Housing Resting area Emphasis on cow comfort Feeding Timing Consistency Milking Equipment Emphasis on quality Types of housing Loose Cows free to lounge around Free Stall Barn Bedding Pack Confinement Cows confined to stalls Tie Stall Barn Stanchion Barn Housing Considerations Bedding Clean, Dry Types of bedding: Sand Shavings Straw Ventilation Keep cows cool Remove moisture Types of Ventilation: Fans Ridge Vents Tunnel Ventilation Curtain sides Types of milking parlors Types of milking systems Tie Stall/Stanchion Barns Milking unit is brought to the cow Milking Parlor Cows come to the milking unit Types of milking parlors Step Up Cows step up Parallel Cows stand side by side, milked between the rear legs Herringbone Cows stand at an angle, milked from the side Carrousel Cows stand and parlor moves in a circle What are cows fed? Corn silage Alfalfa/grass silage Alfalfa hay Corn Soybean meal Fuzzy whole cottonseed Commodity feeds (corn gluten, distillers grains, soybean hulls, citrus pulp, candy bars, etc.) ?TMR? = ?? Feeding Considerations Timing Feed cows at about the same time every day Consistency Keep the type of feeds consistent Avoid variation in feeds Breeding Milk Cows Manager chooses a voluntary waiting period Time desired between calving and first breeding Typical goal is for cow to have a calf every 12-13 months Dry cows Give cows a 6 ? 8 week rest period or dry period Have separate ration from milk cows Opportunity to prepare cow for next lactation Questions? Issues in the Dairy Industry BST Organic Milk Raw vs. Pasteurized Milk BST / rBST What is rBST? Monsanto?s label: Protein ?used in healthy dairy cows to increase production of marketable milk?beginning in the 9th week after calving?until the end of lactation? All milk contains residual amounts of BST BST is a protein that is broken down in the digestive tract Does NOT affect humans, whether injected or ingested BST is NOT a steroid hormone Organic Milk Limitations on livestock include: No drugs or hormones Daily exercise & access to pasture Ex: Winter Feeds grown without commercial fertilizer, herbicides, and pesticides Risks of raw milk consumption: comes from the list of pathogens possible in the raw milk: Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus Campylobacter jejuni Salmonella species E. coli (EHEC) (ETEC) Listeria monocytogenes Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mycobacterium bovis Brucella species (abortus ?cattle) (melitensis- goats) Coxiella burnetii Yersinia enterocolitica Raw vs. Pasteurized Milk (Courtesy of Amber Thompson) Disease Outbreaks From Milk Products (Courtesy of Cornell University) What Can Be Done to Prevent Illness? Pasteurize! What is pasteurization? Process where heat is used to destroy harmful pathogens without altering the flavor or nutritional value significantly. Also destroys spoilage-causing bacteria Extends shelf life
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