Strategic, adversarial talk; aimed at winning through the better argument; decision by professional judgment or voting.
Cooperative or co-determinative but more often adversarial talk; aimed at expression of positions and opinions, clarification of points of view, everyone having a say; decision by concession or voting.
Cooperative, often co-determinative talk; aimed at determining what is true based on rationality, fact finding, appealing to common warrants and procedures and removal of power dynamics; decision by emerging consensus and agreement.
Cooperative or co-determinative but often strategic
talk; aims at tension reduction and rational assessment of parties’ best interests in light of constraints and limited options; decision by agreement.
Cooperative and codeterminative talk; aimed at understanding the other in their own unique life context, acceptance of difference; decision by appealing to common grounds and desire to get along.
Cooperative and co-determinative talk; aims at creativity to
overcome apparent conflicts by reframing and enlarging available options through
avoiding positioning and favored means of goal accomplishment and focusing on larger
outcomes and interests; decision by emerging consensus around new options of mutual
Refers to the sense of being “present” by focusing on paying attention,
listening, and recognizing the emotional content of messages.
- Not just waiting for your turn to respond
refers to claims that avoid abstractions by providing meaningful
The process of explicitly assigning and expressing appropriate
responsibility for feeling and actions.
- Using the "I" voice instead of YOU make me angry, saying "I feel angry at you for this reason"
The process of making explicit your understanding of the other
person’s message prior to responding to it.
- Way of seeing the world
- What's your focus/position
- Socially available ways of attending to the world
- Who I am and how I see the world
- Who we are is relationally consutrcted
- The woking out of our identities works out together and is positioned**
- Don't realize view of the world IS a view of the world until you see or meet someone different.
- Some bad solution instead- new creative solution
- Creativity to look at sustainability
Healthcare bill- no commitment to decision
- People don't feel committed to this decision when you're more involved
Following rules or standards
How many would lie on resume if couldn't get caught
How are you being watched?
Better decision is when we don't feel like we need to be watched
- Made just for you
- Fits conditions you're a part of
-Strategic control will be used to describe ways of interacting that are directed
toward someone’s advantage. (ROMAN)
-Co-determination describes interaction choices and structures that are directed to
increase symmetry and shared responsibility. The outcome is less predetermined from the beginning and arises from a free back-and-forth that goes in mutual and sometime
unpredictable directions. (GREEK)
The move to collaboration is usually encouraged when multiple, often competing, parties
need to actually make a decision, rather than to learn or understand alone, and where, in
addition to commitment and compliance, we need greater creativity and customization in
Focuses on group/team decision making instead of different parties doing their jobs separately and THEN coming together afterwards. This focuses on development TOGETHER.
• The problems are ill-defined, or there is disagreement about how they should be
• Several stakeholders have a vested interest in the problem and are interdependent.
• These stakeholders are not necessarily identified a priori or organized in any
• There may be a disparity of power and/or resources for dealing with the problems
among the stakeholders.• Stakeholders may have different levels of expertise and different access to information about the problems.
• The problems are often characterized by technical complexity and scientific
• Different perspectives on the problem often lead to adversarial relationships
among the stakeholders.
• Incremental or unilateral efforts to deal with the problems typically produce less
than satisfactory solutions.
• Existing processes for addressing the problems have proved insufficient and may
even exacerbate them.
1. Requisite Diversity.
- Do we have the differences present that most dislodge commitment to existing positions and give the greatest chance for creativity?
- In general, the more complex the problem, the more diversity that is needed.
- What is the difference that makes a difference?
- All differences contributed to the possibility of an emergent solution.
2. Distributed Knowledge.
-Diffbodies of knowledge and different forms of knowing are essential to good decisions.
3. External Legitimacy.
- The different stakes that individual and groups have, have to be accounted for.
- Particular agendas or stakes cannot not be excluded to the advantage of others.
4. Implementation Needs.
-The best decision is of little value if it is not implemented.
- Implementation of decisions often requires different community connections and understanding how diverse constituent groups think. * Often do not have direct stake
1. Establishing Ground Rules
- An agreement by the group to interact in particular ways and a discussion of
how they will govern themselves.
2. Dialogue: Story-Telling, Describing Feelings, Venting, Giving Positions
- Dialogue focuses on understanding and appreciating differences and finding ways for them to co-exist in producing a world together.
- It asks, “do I get it?” “can I see the world you live in?”
- It begins with a fundamental reciprocity.
- In recognizing that you have a world and I have a world, I recognize in you granting me the right to mine, I grant you a right to yours
3. Problem Transformation: Moving from Positions to Interests and Surfacing Outcome Objectives
- Individuals working with appreciate inquiry have shown that every statement of a problem has a hidden positive shadow.
- Interaction around hopes and dreams rather than problems opens up group possibilities.
- What is important here and who cares about it?
- Outcome talk keeps us focused what we wish to achieve together and opens up multiple ways of achieving that.
4. Joint Fact Finding
- Join in a joint search and discovery of the information that it will need to put together a plan to achieve these things.
5. Inventing Options
- Whatever the specifics of the process, the goal is to get as many ideas as possible on
the table without premature evaluation.
6. Reaching an Agreement
- In this phase, participants work to develop some agreement and consensus around
- The more creativity in the previous phase, the better this phase will go.
- The goal is to produce consensus on a course of action
- Here the group turns from being collaborative to being strategic.
- The group moves forward with a plan (or plans) and considers what would be necessary for the proposed to be accepted by the wider public and put into place.
- Sometimes this stage can be very difficult because of the possible interaction with the outside public.
Genuine conversation is the ongoing process of creating mutual understanding through the open formation of experience.
Genuine conversation requires two conditions:
1. An engagement that allows the world and meaning to unfold in front of it rather than trying to control or direct,
2. A difference which challenges the ordinary pre-understandings brought to the interaction.
Contestation occurs when the difference seems other, challenging and demanding that we must give up something. We experience the sense that: "We think we have the answer. How could someone think otherwise? Why do we need to talk?" Yet, the presence of the other let’s us know other answers are possible.
- Unusually intense and are most often destructive, protracted, and deeply-rooted.
- Intractability means that these conflicts seem to continue despite the need
for reconciliation and after numerous reasonable attempts for resolution.
- The choice of what to study – what to focus organizational attention on –is both essential and strategic
- The Discovery phase is a diligent and extensive search to understand the “best of what is” and “what has been.”
- The Dream phase is an energizing exploration of “what might be”: a time for
people to explore their hopes and dreams for their work, their working relationships, their organization, and the world at large.
- The intent of the Dream phase is to identify and spread generative, affirmative, and
hopeful images of the future.
- The Design phase involves making choices about “what should be” within an
organization or system.
- Become more fully aligned with the organization’s positive past (Discovery) and highest potential (Dream).
- The Destiny phase initiates a series of inspired actions that support ongoing learning and innovation – or “what will be.
- Focuses specifically on personal and organizational commitments and paths
-reciprocity is violated
- In systematically distorted communication, a system of domination is
perpetuated because of the difficulty of difference being present or being engaged.
- The production of wants is often an outcome of systematically distorted communication
Unwitting consent is the presence of the acceptance of a constructed position,
identity, feeling, and so forth as your own without critical examination or investigation of the lack of reciprocity present in the construction process.
- The term cultural management calls attention to one of the ways unwitting consent is produced and sustained in contemporary communities
- Cultural management is the process by which our heart, mind, body, and soul are managed by others
- We think or feel something specific on our own without having to be convinced of
- The problem was not having a say, but what they expressed when they did.
People as “its” are seen as objects, entities with specific physical and psychological characteristics. We classify, describe and respond to them based on
Sometimes, however, we see them as “thous.” We recognize that they are not
objects, they are what we called, indeterminate. They are more than any description that
can be made of them. We are drawn out to attend to their uniqueness, their excess over
Came from a very different perspective but to much the same
place, arguing that our conceptions of communication in focusing on the self have a weak sense of the "other" and "otherness." With a weak conception of “otherness,” we have placed ethics and concern with interaction in the self.
Liberal democracy, which assumes a person-centered, linear model of
communication, attempts to channel mutual decision-making by giving an opportunity for all to speak.
Keeping people safely apart rather than productively together.
Comm is the expression and sharing of those experiences.
- Meaning is in me and comm is to express it to you
- Comm as expression- Person as fixed
- Comm to make meaning
- Person as fluid
- Make meaning together
Not how can I express to you what I think but how can we make meaning together?
FACT- Liberal/Delib. Democracy
CLAIM- Participatory Democracy.
1. The presence of a general opportunity does not assure that conditions exist where all can equally exercise this opportunity. This is especially the case where the primary places of expression require payment for the opportunity or considerable costs exist for production.
Mass media is an example of that where economic inequality greatly impacts the
opportunity to speak equally.
2. With an adversarial model of expression, equality of opportunity often becomes reduced to the equal opportunity to control and influence each other but not to invent together.
3. Of greatest importance has been the concern that if our experiences are relationally constructed, then free speech may only be the freedom to speak the meanings of others, especially meanings of more dominant social groups.
Deliberation accepted this particular image of talk as argumentation and tried to
make it practiced better in the general society in part by valorizing the jury system and
developing ethical concepts
Deliberation was shown as able to improve democratic processes by increasing reciprocity, public commitment to decisions, and mutual understanding and civility in interaction.
Fact- based reasoning,
Everyone is involved, no one left out
Listen to all sides of an issue to learn opinion
Aims to provide a more enlightened self interest
Discourse ethics designed interactions with justifications for a position that is expressed
- Work to understand each other
- Give reason behind claim- testing
- Eliminated coercion.
Acknowledges that certain parts of Liberal Democracy need improving
Leads to more informed thinking
Fundamentally wants to disagree with Liberal Democracy
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