5/31/11 4:45 PM Imperial Russian Ballet: Theaters in both Moscow and St.Petersburg Ballet entirely dependent on the Tsar Tsar The supreme ruler in Russia Jean Baptiste Lande Russian ballet master Trained first professional ballet St. Petersberg City in Russia, Capital ?seat of the tsar?s court? Ballet more important and more aristrocratic in style Classically more ?pure? than Moscow Maryinsky Theater to Kirov Theater Kirov theater was in St.Petersburg and was home to much of the most important creativity in Russia Moscow, Bolshoi Theater More exuberant then the theater in St. Petersburg Charles Didelo Most important figure in Russia in immediately pre-Romantic days Improved the repertory and teaching Marius Petipa Frenchman invited to St. Petersburg Chief architect of Russian Ballet greatness Spent remainder of 63 years in Russia For a long time was never given a chance to be the Master Choreographer Became head choreographer after St. Leon died Good at divertissements, like to include children on stage and happy peasants Daughter of the Pharoah Choreographed by Petipa in 1861 Inspired by the novel The Story of the Mummy Given 6 weeks to make the performance Drew on teachings from Perrot and St. Leon Divertissement Meant to only entertain E.g. Arthur St. Leon?s National dances Grand Pas de Deus: Supposed to show off talent Entrée Adagio Duet Male solo Female solo Coda 4 Styles of Movement Classical Character Demi-character Mime Children on stage Done by Petipa The Sleeping Beauty, 1890 Choreographed by Petipa Tsar Initially did not like the play Tchaikovsky Composer, The Sleeping Beauty, The Nutcracker Collaborated with Petipa Swan Lake Ivanov Rose Adagio Part in Sleeping Beauty where everyone is celebrating Aurora?s birthday and each suitor gives her a rose The Nutcracker, 1892 Not a big success No sensible dramatic action Role for the ballerina is reduced to one ?pas de deux? in the second act Made while Petipa- task handed to Ivanov Ivanov Second ballet master to Petipa Greatest success is the snowflake scene- was free from a detailed synopsis Tchaikovsky, dies 1893 Swan Lake 1895 Secod act was chosen to from part of a performance dedicated to Tchaikovsky First produced in Moscow Pierina Leganani starred as Odette, very successful Black Swan Pas de Deux Choreographed by Petipa, third scene Petipa Acts I and III The ?real world of the court? acts Ivanov Acts II and IV The romantic lake-side scenes Odette/Odile Odette is the ?swan princess? in swan lake Odile is Von Rothbart?s (the evil witch) daughter Tricks the prince into being unfaithful to Odette (danced by the same ballerina in the ballet) Prince Siegfried Lead male ballet dancer in the Swan Lake Russian Revolution 1917 Over threw the tsarist government and formed the Soviet Union Anna Pavlova Ballerina at the Maryinsky theatre, signed w the Diaghileff company 1st to tour outside country formed own company with Mikhail Mordkin Conservative/traditional dancer, sincere/refined style Gave dancing a common place in homes The Dying Swan, 1905 Choreographed by Fokine Danced by Anna Pavlova First presented in St. Petersburg Russia Ballet Russes Diaghileff signed a contract in 1923 with Monaco Changed the name to Les Ballets Russes de Monte Carlo Under Balanchine, then Massine, then Sol Hurok, then Colonel de Basil Diaghilev Russian nobility, given supervisory post at the Maryinsky theatre Created the Ballet Russe as a separate entity from the imperial ballet Dancers include: Michael Fokine, Anna Pavlova, Vaslav Nijinky Established own company in 1911 to break off from the Imperial Ballet Used well known artists and composers to bring together his performances created a hot bed of collaboration Spurred American interest in Ballet after touring in 1916 At his death his company dissolved Leon Bakst Costume designer for Le Spectre rose, cleopatre, scherenzade Pablo Picasso Colloboration, designed the set for Ballet Parade Fokine Choreographer born in St. Petersburg, Imperial School of Ballet, Maryinsky theater Class technique- fuller arm movement and more supple back, barefoot Criticized rigity of Russian ballet in his writings, need to unify ballet dramatic First major ballet: Le Pavillion d? Armide (featuring Nijinsky and Pavlova) Choreographed: Le Spectre de La Rose, Les Sylphides, Scheherazade, Firebird, Petrouchka, and Solo Dying Swan for Anna Pavlova Fokine?s 5 major principles New movement for each dance No mime Use entire body to develop the dramatic action of the ballet Unity among the artists Should reflect an active and equal cooperation of all the arts involved in it (costumes, lighting?should be unified) Les Sylphides Choreographed by Fokine Abstract Ballet, has no plot First non-narrative romantic ballet Scheherazade, 1910 Choreographed by Fokine Based on the book One Thousand and One Nights Cleopatre, 1909 Choreographed by Fokine Anna Pavlova, Vaslaw Nijinsky Preformed in Balle Russe Petrouchka, 1911 Choreographed by Fokine Preformed by Nijinsky, takes place at winter outdoor fair, 3 puppets include ballerina, Moore, and Pretrouchka, Pretrouchka is murdered by Moore Le Spectre de la Rose, 1911 Choreographed by Fokine Nijinsky One of Diaghileff?s greatest stars Debut in Fokine?s Don Juan Went to the St. Petersburg Imperial school of Ballet resigned from St. Petersburg company to sign with Diaghileff Became mentally ill, career only lasted 9 years (schizophrenia) Danced in Le Spectre de la Rose, Petrouchka, Sleeping Beauty, Les Syplhides, Scherezade Known for elevation, leaps, pirouettes, point, entrechat douze (6 cross overs of the feet) Choreographed: Afternoon of a Faun- people thought it was too sexual Rite of Spring- precursor to modern dance dancer?s fall to the ground, was considered precursor of modern dance Radical change from classical ballet Music by Stravinsky, sacrifice a virgin maiden, dance till death, riot broke out during performance, ugly woman costume Jeux: Sexual tension between 2 women and 1 man (tennis) First 2 were some controversial because he used relaxation, hugged-in shivers, elevation and feet turned out Debussy Worked with Diaghlieffs company and collaborated with him for his productions Stravinsky Composer that collaborated with Diaghlieff, Fokine Rudolph Nureyev Ballet dancer for the Kirkov Ballet school, the Royal Ballet, and Paris Opera Ballet Preformed in Sleeping Beauty, Giselle, and the film Les Sylphides Defected from Russia because mingled with foreigners, confined to political asylum where he died of AIDS Robert Joffery Created the Joffery Ballet Homosexual, from Chicago. Died of AIDS Modern dance choreographer, gender balance, made ballet publicly accessible No-star system, started off with 6 dancers in a station wagon Gamelan, Astarte Set to rock music with special lighting and motion-picture effects Massine Graduated from the Moscow Imperial Ballet School selected by Diaghlieff to join his company Known for two different ballet styles Symphonic Ballet: Composed major works to symphonies of Tchaikovsky, Berlioz, Beethoven Story Ballets: high degree of comedy, satire, and character dancing Parade (1917): Choreographed by Massine; design by Picasso Three-Cornered Hat, 1919 example of a story ballet by Massine Nijinska Nijinsky?s sister; dancer/choreographer for Diaghileff companies Ballet Russe Rebelled against 19th century Classicalism Studied at the Maryninsky Theater Respected the classical ballet framer of movement, but also was an prolific inventor of new dance movement Choreographed: Le Train Bleu (1924): playful spoor of French wanting to be American; music by Milhaud; costumes by CoCo Chanel Les Noces (1923): about a Russian arranged marriage, music by Stravinsky, dancers create structural space Sleeping Beauty (1921): Went back to Ballet Russe to do this Anton Dolin Born in England, started his ballet studies in Brighton with Nijinska Worked as a child actor and when Diaghlieff produced the Sleeping Princess in London he was hired into the corps under a different name At the time Russia did not let dancers emigrate to the west Danced in Le Train Bleu First première dancer in the American Ballet Theater (ballet theater) Was knighted in 1981 Suzanne Linglor Famous tennis player who took a lesson in ballet Milhaud Composr of Le Train Bleu Influenced by Jazz George Balanchine Greatest influence on American Ballet on Diaghlieff?s team Trained at the imperial school of ballet After he graduated began to choreograph works with a small group that is now Leningrad Much opposition to his work At 20 he became ballet master replacing Nijinska Suffered a knee injury that killed his dancing career Apollo, 1928: First solo: twisting, lunging affair Second Solo: pulls weight off center, lunges, asymmetrical plie on forced arch, abruptly jumps Confirmed that Balanchine was an experimentalist Agon, 1957: Music by Stravinsky, worked close with Balanchine Ancient Greek contest/debate between opposing forces Four Temperments, 1946 Waddling of their heels, legs straight, tap dance transition step Showed connection between the Africanist dance and American modern dance Africanist aesthetic/ European aesthetic Africanist aesthetic: embrace conflict, polycentrism and polyrhythm, juxtaposition, ?youth? ephebism European and africanist aesthetic saw a belnding of the two styles during the 20th C Embrace opposites Lincoln Kirstein Owns Filene?s departments store Started the NYCB with Balanchine New York City Ballet (NYCB) Developed during the 20th C under the artistic domination of Balanchine 1950-1970 developed a good reputation for ballet in the US First season was only 14 performances Financially very poor initially because of competition with the Ballet Russe Balanchine invited to go to London to stage his Ballet Imperial, and then shortly after the Company was invited to perform for a season at the Covent Garden Arthur Mitchell Auditioned for the Katherine Dunham School of Dance, got a scholarship to the American School of Ballet Debut: Western Symphony Breakthrough: Agon pas de duex First black to break racial barrier, creates dance company in Harlem Dancer Theater of Harlem Created by Arthur Mitchell Wanted to provide role models and professional goals for aspiring dancers Racially integrated, but primarily black Involves movement drawn directly from African dance sources American Ballet Theater (ABT) Directors: Lucia Chase, and Carychnikov Developed the most native American performers than any other Repertoire was broad Developed out of the Mordkin Ballet Anton Dolin- choreographer of Classic Wing, Eugene Loring- American Wing, Antony Tudor of the New English Wing Pleasants aspiration. Failed, forced to resign at the end of 1941 Sol Hurok new head of ABT Isadora Duncan Mother of modern dance Used primitive (greek) style of dance and inspired by classic aesthetics ? bare feet, free torso More emotion, less technique, avant-garde, no codified technique Natural movement to place humanity with the beauty of nature Loie Fuller Serpentine- yards of silk illuminated by stage lighting Former actress Danced in theatrical dress, sets and lighting Ruth St. Denis Preformed her imaginative and subjective response to exotic faraway lands Wanted to combine the theatrical with the spiritual Ted Shawn St. Denis? dance partner and former theology student Denishawn St.Denis and Ted Shawns company that helps spread the gospel of dance from the constraints of ballet Opened in LA Brought dance to the middle class by supporting good health and virginal spirituality 19th Constitutional Amendment vote women get the right to vote, dance reflects the civil rights movement of the time Margaret Sanger Founder of planned parenthood Advocated BC fled to Paris to avoid arrest Louis Horst Music director for Denishawn Believed expression must succumb to form Used musical elements to define counterparts in dance Taught composition classes at the Graham School Martha Graham Member of Denishawn (left in 1923) Expressed her relationship to Emily Dickinson?s poetry through Letter to the World-1940 Created the Graham Dance Company Created emotionally charged pieces based on Greek Plays added dream state to theater Acts of light, 1981: book about the development of her technique Pelvic contraction and release: used to create a powerful, grounded, percussive, angular dance Percussive movement: more aggressive in nature Doris Humphrey Previous member of Denishawn Shared a school with Weidman Fascinated with the fall and recovery of the body The Art of Making Dances, 1959- book written by Humphrey on the theories of choreography Charles Weidman Previous member of Denishawn Developed a comedic mime aesthetic Shared a school with Humphrey Pioneer of modern dance Jose Limon Humphrey?s pretege Established own company in 1950s with Humphrey as artistic director Made dancers see glory of human psirit in dance on stage and in classroom Gestures need clear motivation The Moor?s Pavane: human body=tangible instrument Emperor Jones and There is a Time About humanity and gift of movement Rudolph Laban Dancer and theoretician Clear language for movement in space and time Mary Wigman German mode dance choreographer a]pioneer Wigman school early 1900 nazi rule Experimented with space in relation to figures Nonwestern influence- Used bells, gongs from Asia/Afica Simple/primitive Works: summer dance, dream image, witch dance, dance of sorrow, visions, cycles, and the way Hanya Holm Believed that your body is your language Dark emotional expressionism Opened Wigman School in NY Believed dancers should find essence of dance, freedom, improve Alvin Ailey Modern choreographer ? jazz, modern, African w/Balanchine early-late 1900s Brought Broadway to dance multiracial Alvin Ailey Dance Company 1958 Style: articulate legs/feet, upper toros, classical ballet lines to the body Works: revelations (testimony to Negro spirituals) Died of AIDS Paul Taylor 3rd generation modern dancer/choreographer, bisexual quirky Three Epitaphs everyday moves rather than dance moves musically sensitive and athletic and lyrical, desired silence-avant garde Paul Taylor Dance Company 1954 Duet, 1957 & Aureole, 1962 Duet: 7 new dances but only 4 min long, had a black review Aureole: had lush and beautiful music and ordinary pedestrian movement Avant-Garde Depersonalizes dance, rather than dehumanizes, movement revels essence of humanity by connoting nature Merce Cunningham Influenced by John Cage Isolated choreography, music, lighting made then independent and equal aspects (timing is everything) Preformed in decentralized spaces Choreographed with a stop watch Minutiae, Rain Forest, Points in Space all his works John Cage Long time collaborator and companion of Cunningham- musician Robert Ellis Dunn Asked by Cage to teach choreography at Cunningham?s studio Offered a place for younger generation to question and explore with no judgments Post-Modern Dance Works to question the complexities of real life Judson Church Concert organized by Dunn continued here until 1968 Expanded the meaning of dance Informal dancers preformed Located in Greenwich Village Tywla Tharp Post Modern Choreographer Base that existence is movement Dance done to beach boy tunes- Deuce Coupe Had a very extensive background Alwin Nikolais Undestood the medium of movement as expressive motion Extended the human body in motion by using masks and props Used slide projectors to create new lighting on stage Believed that you didn?t need emotion because motion was enough Tensile Involvement, 1953 Choreographed by Alwin Nikolais Had a lot of ribbons, very involved in the sounds Wearing skin colored clothes Part of the Joffery Ballet Pilobolus Communal company formed in 1971 Developed in isolation from modern/post-modern dance worlds Titled after a fungus Could move collectively to make something larger than just one body could make Monkshood Farewell 1974: human jousting horses preformance Choreographers who died from AIDS Alivn Ailey, Ulysses Dove, Damien Apovella, Arty Zane, Christopher Gillis, Rudolph Hureyev Bill T. Jones Choreographer Fela Companion was Arty Zane Arnie Zane made dance company with him Black/track star Story telling D-Man in the water, 1989: wasn?t about AIDS, was about dealing with the emotion and life of it, dancing as if it was in water, response to his lover?s illness Still/Here, 1994: response to AIDS Joe Goode Deeply There, 1998 choreographer story of neighborhood, why is he sleeping? Because he is dying of AIDS African-American modern dance choreographers: Gus Solomon Jr. Born in Massachusetts Began Ballet training at MIT Moved to NY, Deconstruct forms and structure but maintain technicality Associated with Martha Graham and Merce Cunningham Company Gus Solomon Company/Dance- focus on how dancers felt while exeuting the movement; video & dance Eleo Pomare Traveled all around the world and made one international dance company and one in NY Returned to US in 1965 Styled characterized by unexpected shapes that twist, bend, fall and lean in continuous movement Based on socio-political issues Talley Beatty From Chicago, Illinois- wanted to be tap dancer originally Part of Katherine Dunham?s troupe Made own company, style derived from African and Latin American culture Katherine Dunham Queen mother of black dance Katherine Dunham Dance Company- Survived 30 years Ulysses Dove Merce Cunningham School Alvin Ailey asked him to join his company Then went to Paris Opera Then became a freelance choreographer Known for speed, force, and eroticism Alvin Ailey Popularized modern dance and revolutionized the African-American participation in the 20th C concert dance Company did extensive international touring Revelations is his best known piece Technique: long, unbroken leg line and deftly articulated legs and feet combined with a dramatically expressive upper torso Hip-hop Ronald Brown Donald McKayle Mikhail Baryshnikov Director for ABT Russian choreographer and dancer Defected to Canada to NYC ballet to learn from Balanchine Political Asylum Political rights granted because a person?s rights had been violated Garth Fagan Lion King 1998/Griot NY piece about underprivileged in NYC Choreography incorporates elements of modern dance, ballet, Afro-Caribbean dance, and social dance Jamaican Dance Theatre Harlem, Alvin Ailey CO, Jose Limon CO Vandekeybus Has the highest injury rate in Belgium Choreography is about throwing themselves and objects- about instinct to survive Ballroom Dance Romance- Eruopean Aesthetic Couples and a place of courtship Containment of energy Savoy Ballroom 1928 hotbed of people dancing located in Harlem, music and public dancing Lindy Hop Popular dance of the 1930?s Created in Harlem, created by African culture, aesthetic of the cool, based on Jazz music Introduced improvisation Jitterbug Fast swing dancing Lots of ups and downs, really jerky Taught in dance studios white version of the Lindy Hop Buddy Dean Show Baltimore White and blacks were segregated Young people dancing Local TV sensation Ruby Keeler Dancer in Busby Berkeley?s movies in ?42nd st? Broadway song/dance American girl-next-door type Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers Ballet/tap dance duet partners made any movies together Technique- fllet/weightless 31 ballets/35 years; solo more inventive than duet with Rogers ?dancing lady?, ?carioca?. ?Gay divorce?, ?On your Toes?, ?Night+Day? used Dance to advance plot Tap Dance Range/variety of movement at churches limited because dancing considered sinful Not sinful for slaces if feet did not cross/leave the floor- feet tapping ?buck? True American dance form, African and Irish aesthetic Nicholas Brothers Incredible dances, balck ,most successful specialty team in film history Type: vaudeville, Broadway, appeared as specialty act (not protagonist) Combined tap, jazz, acrobatics, black vernacular, PRECISE footwork Worked with Balanchine, ?Argentine way? and ?Stormy Weather? Shirley Temple Tap dancer during the depression Bill ?Bojangles? Robinson Black tap dancer, danced with Shirely Temple Gene Kelly American dancer/actor/director/choreographer Technique: thick frame of the Hollywood Golden Age Era Works: ?Pall Joey?, ?Me and My girl?, ?Covergirl? Relied on elaborate set and costuming, design every step with a camera in mind Dance 45 Final Review 5/31/11 4:45 PM 5/31/11 4:45 PM
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