peninsulares: natives of Spain living in Mexico (elite, royal/spain connected people) criollos: Spanish blood born in Mexico (wants a council to rule ? junta) mestizo: mixed Spanish and indigenous blood Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla: 1809 ? strong supporter of the criollos, led an uprising against the peninsulares, priest (fathered children, questioned the infallibility of the pope and the virgin birth) Gives an address ? Grito de Delores (government needs to be more responsible to its people, not revolution, but taken that way) executed Juan Bautista de las Casas ? executed (shot in the back as a traitor) Jose Maria Morelos ? takes over fight in Mexico Bernando Gutierrez ? creates the republican party of the north, says he?s the leader of tx Jose Alvarez de Toledo ? commander at the battle of medina, takes command of the army as it stands, has 1400 men with him (almost a mob, not an army) August 1813 Medina River Battle of 1400, 1000 dead by Mexicans, hundreds executed after the battle James Long ? raises an army of 300 men, creates a government in Galveston, falls apart, escapes to New Orleans, and comes back, captured by Spanish prisoned in Mexico city, murdered in prison. James Long?s wife, stays behind and has a child. called the mother of texas because first anglo baby born in texas. 1819 ? spain still controls the area, collapses because spain begins to fall apart. not defeated in mexico, but defeated at home. in spain, constitutional monarch ? idea for criollos AUGUST 24th 1821 ? Mexico declares it?s independence (Spanish Texas becomes Mexican Texas) every major river has a spanish name, cattle ranching and agricultural characteristic of Spain, spainish civil law (more power and protection than English law) 1821-1835 texas will be the focal point (and of immigration ? white Americans coming in, indians from the southwest, midwest coming in, southeast ? come over before the revolution, have no legal rights, GTT (gone to texas) Mexicans, full-blood spanish, criollos spanish, indians from all over, white-anglo Americans coming in. COLONIZATION Moses Austin ? gets title of empresario (allows to come into texas to colonize) does things legally and overtly. born in Connecticut and then lives in Virgina, then goes to Missouri (spanish controlled area) and becomes a spanish citizen. Panic of 1819 (depression). In 1820, moses and his slave cross the Sabine and enters texas. meets with government officials. given a colony and empresario title. gathers 300 people and settle the Austin colony. goes back to Missouri after legality established and tells his son (Stephen F. Austin) his plans, and dies. Stephen F. Austin ? born in VIrgina and becomes a part of Missouri politics and in 1821 moves in texas after father?s death and secures land already set up. in 1822 opens the door to Americans for cheap land. (centered on San Felipe) Stephen F Austin leaves Austin and goes to Mexico city Austin is granted an official right to settle Texas colony. people overthrown and legality in question again. Mexico beginning to establish what government going to look like (Coahuila and Texas) CONSTITUTION OF 1824 ? solidifies the federalist system of Mexico 14 States Federalist System ? emphasis on giving power to individual states, authority is divided among three branches, resembles the American constitution Threat of Tyranny ? president still has a lot of power Catholicism ? official religion of roman catholic church COLONIZATION ACT OF 1825 ? everything put into law allows people to come into texas under empresario contracts to settle act provides each head of household with 400 acres, empresarios get more land and more for bringing in more people. had to become a Mexican citizen and catholic 1825 ? Mexico shifting administrative border, Texas and Coahuila are officially separated (administratively) still use the term Coahuila y Tejas, border not the rio grande but the Nueces. San Antonio, Goliad, San Felipe and Nacogdoches. each develop own political culture. Austin continued to bring in colonists, mediates many disputes. everything called into question by Hayden Edwards, older than Austin, from Virginia ? inspired by Moses Austin to enter Texas, angered everyone. Austin has to deal with him. he changes boundaries on pre ?existing claims, fraudulent election to get son-in-law in power, mexico revokes his charter, resorts to violence and overthrows Nacogdoches power, Mexico sends in troops and Hayden Edwards creates a government of Fredonia, 1826 government sends troops and Austin makes sure colonists don?t go along with it. Edwards flees to LA in 1827 and returns during the Texas revolution until his death in the 1840s. Proves to the Texas government that Austin is a good guy, a good ally for him. helps Austin immensely. 1830 ? 10,000 americans lived in texas
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