Moral Development Kohlberg?s theory Three levels, six stages of moral reasoning Stage change based on perspective taking opportunities and experienced conflict Kohlberg?s Stages of Moral Development Shift from Preconventional to Conventional around 9-10 years old. Kohlberg?s Beliefs Levels and stages occurred in sequence Cognitive development does not ensure moral reasoning development Peer interaction stimulates moral reasoning Primary Criticism of Kohlberg?s Theory : Moral thought does not always match moral behavior. Extra activity: Make a list of three moral rules that you personally highly value (example: ?Treat others kindly?). Classify listed rules according to Kohlberg?s scale Also try to think of personal behaviors that show preconventional reasoning (doing something to avoid punishment) (example: slowing down one?s driving when one sees a police car). Bullying Verbal or physical behavior intended to disturb someone less powerful Most likely affected are males and younger middle school students Targeted children unlikely to retaliate Bullies more likely to have lower grades, smoke or drink alcohol Victims suffer many other effects What Victims of Bullies Should Do: Walk away and avoid bullies as much as possible. Try to use humor or to distract the bully from attacking you. Try a direct approach such as: ?Please, stop!? Walk away. Stay with a friend when in the school yard or cafeteria. What Schools Should Do: Monitor all open areas of play or gathering. Separate boys and girls who are arguing or hostile. Act incisively towards the bully?follow through. Provide counseling for the bully. Involve the parents of the bully. What Teachers Should Do: Use the curriculum to teach respect and understanding for others? rights. Discuss methods of solving problems with children often. Give them scenarios where students are confronted with a problem and ask the class their views on how it can be solved. Never overreact to a student?s outbursts or aggressiveness. What Parents Should Do: Support children?s positive self-esteem Practice scenarios Be open to child?s discussion of experiences
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