Distance from one wave peak to the next Short wavelength - high frequency (blue-ish colors) Long Wavelength - low frequency (red-ish colors)
Distance from the top of one peak to the botton Great amplitude - bright colors Small amplitude - dull colors
Conversion of one from of energy into another. In sensation, for example, sights, sounds, and smells into neural impulses
Protects the eye and bends light to provide focus
a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening. Adjusts light intake
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
Chemical women used to enlarge their pupils; it was believed to make them more attractive. It was found it did not make them more physically attractive
the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the precessing of visual information
the central focal point in the retina, around which they eye's cones cluster
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones dont respond
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations
Eye floaters are those tiny spots, specks, flecks and "cobwebs" that drift aimlessly around in your field of vision
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there. You can still see with it because your brain fills in the hole
Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic theory
the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors - one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue - which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, and white-black) enable color vision.
Nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement
the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including visions. contrasts with the step-by-step processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving
Determines pitch high frequency - high pitch low frequency - low pitch
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
sensory receptors that line the surface of the basilar membrane
A stiff structural element that separates two liquid-filled tubes that run along the coil of the cochlea
In hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochleas membrane is stimulated
in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch
How do we locate sounds?
sound waves strike one ear sooner and more intensely than the other. From this information, our brain comutes the sounds location
Selective attention is the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
How is selective attention demonstrated by the cocktail party affect
The cocktail party effect is your ability to attend to only one voice among many. However, you will be able to hear your name if someone shouts it
failing to notice changes in the environment
failing to notice changes in the auditory environment
For example, volunteers were shown two faces and made to choose which one was more attractive and explain why. However, most did not realize that the photos had been switched and explained for the photo they hadn't chose
Made up of eight blue circles each which three converging lines, the necker cube is an optical illusion/ambiguous line drawing that can change in appearance due to perception
Figure-ground is the organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground)
How is figure-ground demonstrated by the face-vase illusion
the face-vase illusion tests this by blurring which part is the figures and which is the ground
What does the gestalt notion that "the whole is more than the sum of its parts" mean?
A gestalt is an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes. Ex: A necker cube is really just eight blue circles and three convergine white lines, but together it is a cube
Gestalt principle of proximity
we group nearby figures together
Gestalt principle of similarity
we group similar figures together
Gestalt principle of continuity
we perceive smooth, continuous patters rather than discontinuous ones
Gestalt principle of closure
we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object
Gestalt principle of connectedness
elements that are connected by uniform visual properties are perceived as being more related than elements that are not connected
Binocular cues (dependent on two eyes) to depth perception
Retinal disparity and convergence
by comparing images from the retinas in two eyes, the brain computes distance - the great the disparity, the closer the object
What are monocular cues (dependent on only one eye) to depth perception
Relative size, interposition, relative clarity, relative height, linear perspective, brightness, light and shadows
the smaller of similarly sized objects is further
the object blocking the view of another is closer
object higher in our field of vision are further
parallel lines appear to converge with distance
Brightness, lighter and shadows
dimmer objects seem further away
An illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights clink on and off in quick succession
perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent shapes, sizes, lightness, and color) even as illumination and retinal images change
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another
in vision, a the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted field of view
What can people who have had their vision restored after many years perceive? what can they not?
Patients could distinguish figure from ground and could sense colors. However, they often could not visually recognize objects or shapes that were familiar by touch
ESP is the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; includes telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.
mind-to-mind communication - one person sending thoughts to another or perceiving another's thoughts
perceiving remote events, such as sensing that a friend's house is on fire
perceiving future events, such as a political leader's death
"mind over matter" such as levitating a table
Why are personal stories of paranormal experience unreliable?
vague predictions can be later interpreted to match events that provide a perceptual set for understanding them. we are more likely to recall or reconstruct dreams that appear to have come true. Odd things happen by chance
"senders" were invited to a telepathically send messages to "receivers." The result was a 32-35% success rate
What was the overall result of the follow-up ganzfeld experiments
Results could not be replicated and therefore the result was changed to a 25% rate - due to chance
What is the judgment of the majority of psychologists about ESP?
Most psychologists now believe that there is no reliable or replicable evidence that anyone possesses ESP
What is consciousness
consciousness is our awareness of ourselves and our environment
What did William James mean by the stream of consciousness?
Consciousness moves, flows and changes
controlled levels of consciousness
Controlled serially. require alert awareness, attention and interfere with other ongoing activities. Performed slowly
Automatic (parallel) processes in levels of consciousness
occur with little awareness, require minimal attention and do not interfere with ongoing activity. Performed quickly. Controlled processes can often become automatic with practice
one process is performed at a time
More than one process is performed at a time
What is the relationship between age and daydreaming?
Daydreams decrease with age
How much time does a young adult spend daydreaming? How is this tested?
College students spend about 1/3 of their waking time daydreaming. This was tested by volunteers carrying around pagers or pocket computers that randomly sounded during the day, and then they answered questions (how is your day going, etc)
How can day dreaming be health?
No link has been found between frequent day dreaming and poor mental health. Daydreaming can help people to relax, alleviate boredom and endure frustration, as well as help to rehearse possible approaches to problems
What are the traits of fantasy-prone personalities?
fantasy-prone individuals imagine and recall daydream experiences with lifelike vividness and spend considerable time fantasizing
What percentage of the population is fantasy-prone? how much time do they spend fantasizing?
about 4% of the population spends about 50% of their life daydreaming
What is hypnosis?
Hypnosis is a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts or behaviors will spontaneously occur
What are the two views of hypnosis and what evidence does each use to back its view?
1. Hypnosis is a kind of role playing, where subjects act as they think hypnotize people would act 2. Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness in which some things hypnotized subjects do cannot be performed by non-hypnotized subjects
What is neo-dissociation theory?
during hypnosis, our consciousness divides into two streams - the part of the consciousness that is aware of the hypnotist and the external world, and the hidden observer, the hypnotized subject's awareness of the experiences that go unreported
What are psychoactive drugs?
psychoactive drugs are mood and perception-altering substances
What are the misconceptions about addiction?
Addiction is a compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse conditions
what is tolerance? Dependence?
Tolerance is the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
What are the behavioral effects of depressants such as alcohol and barbiturates?
Depressants are drugs that reduce the neural activity and slow body functions. It increases harmful and helpful tendencies. Reactions slow, speech slurs and skilled performance deteriorates. It disrupts the processing of long-term memories
What are the behavioral effects of stimulants such as amphetamines and ecstasy?
Stimulants are drugs such as caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine, and ecstasy stimulate neural activity and speed up body functions. They can cause heightened energy and euphoria
What are the behavioral effects of hallucinogens such as LSD and marijuana?
Hallucinogens are psychedelic drugs such as LSD that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
Want to see the other 82 Flashcards in Psychology Exam 3?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!