-Bottom is the Underworld/ jaws of the Earth Monster. Lord Pacal crossing into the afterlife. Above him is the tree of life, and above the tree of life is the bird god. shows contrasts between dark and light.
-Also interpreted as lord Pacal flying a spaceship, if turned sideways, according to Von Daniken.
Aztecs: Leader, conquered by, capital city
Conquered by: Hernando Cortes
Capital City: Tenochtitlan
Incas: Leader, conquered by, capital city
Conquered by: Fransisco Pizarro
Capital City: Cuzco
Additional Inca Facts...
- Had roads and roadrunners.
- Did not use writing
-Quipu (a record-keeping system...)
Meso-American Ballgame (rules and court)
Rules: played with a rubber ball, using hips only. Try to get the ball through a small ring. Losers were decapitated.
SITE: Chichen Itza is the largest ball court. skulls of losers hung on racks at the entrance.
Known as "rubber people"
Also located on the Yucatan Peninsula/Gulf of Mexico (1500-500 BC)
famous for the colossal heads
-Were-jaguar= symbol of power and fertility
-Located on the Yucatan peninsula
SITE: Temple of the Feathered Serpent:
-Quetzacoatl's Palace; was a very important deity throughout mesoamerica.
SITE: Monte Verde
-In Chile, Most convincing evidence of pre-clovis history.
Discovered in 1976 by Tom Dillehay.
Site had been water-logged=excellent preservation.
Found a child's footprint, and hundreds of artifacts; mainly tools.
Found ~12 wooden house structures, and 150 different species, 42 of which were edible, and some were from as far away as 150 miles from the site.
-Found in a river in WA state.
-Support land bridge hypothesis.
-Native Americans argued that he was property of them under the laws of the NAGPRA, but they lost the case, and he went to research.
Rape of Mali
-Located in Illinois, 120 mounds, 80 of which still stand today.Excavated by Warren Moorehead in the 1920s; proved that the mounds were cultural.
Site is ~5-6 miles large
Where the major pyramids of the Sun and the Moon are located.
Pyramid of the Sun
Sacred site built atop a cave.
3rd largest pyramid in the world.
built with talud-tablero architecture.
Pyramid of the Moon
Dated older than the pyramid of the Sun.
Burials found underneath it.
Beringia; Crossed over from Siberia. Most accepted theory of Poepling in North America. (Kennewick man supports this theory)
SITE: Chaco Canyon
-New Mexico, 950-1100 AD, 9 miles long
- Dense concentration of pueblos, towns carefully planned
-Great houses and villages.
-Prehistoric roadways connected the outliers of the canyon settlements.
-Agricultural intensification and long distance trade specialization.
-Villages with Iron producing furnaces
-Distinctive figurines, and life-size terracotta statues.
-Settled 1000BC to 300BC
-Located on the inland Niger-Delta
-Settled in 200 BC
-set stage for increasing trade across North America
- Chinampa means "field-raised".
- Basin in Central Highlands of Mexico
- Soil raised above flood plain.
- Offers many agronomic advantages.
- Also used in Bolivia and Peru
- Rain god= Tlaloc
ARCHAEOLOGICAL HOAX: Shinichi Fujimura
Famous Japanese archaeologist, also known as "God's hand"
-Found many Japanese artifacts altering the history, textbooks were rewritten based on his finds.
-Got too lucky,people were suspicious. Caught on film planting artifacts at a site. Went to an mental institution, textbooks had to be rewritten AGAIN.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL HOAX: Piltdown/Dawn Man
-Discovered by Charles Dawson; fragments of teeth and skull found in a gravel pit in 1912. Claimed it was the "missing link"
-1915 found another, and died shortly after. Investigated the skulls and found that it had been a hoax, the skull was that of a modern human, and the jaw belonged to an orangutan. Teeth had also been altered.
PERSON: Erich Von Daniken
Swiss writer who claimed that ancient civilizations were influenced by aliens. Argues things were too complex/difficult for ancient humans to do on their own (ie pyramids).
-Example of his "evidence" Pacal's Lid and "lightbulb" paintings found in cave.
-Built Mystery Park in Germany.
Definition: The archeological investigation of battle sites.
-First major investigation was the Battle of Little Bighorn in Montana.
-Guest speaker studied the Pequot wars in CT.
- William of Occam (Ockham): 14th century English philosopher
- “Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily”
- When you have two competing theories, the one that is simpler is the better
Similaries between all of Meso-America
- ball games
- Step pyramids
- Base-10 system
PERSON: Christy Turner
-Compared the DNA, dental records, and cultural dwellings of different poeples, connecting them to one another.