Branch of christianity that emphasized pacifism and tolerance.
Place of brethren, where Hutterites lived.
Two brothers marry two sisters or a brother and sister marry a brother and sister.
Subfield of anthropology that studies humans as a biological species.
Traditional name for biological anthropology.
Group organisms that can produce fertile offspring among themselves but not with members of other groups.
Subfield of anthropology that focuses on human cultural behavior and cultural systems and the variation in cultural expression among human groups.
Ideas and behaviors that are learned and transmitted. Nongenetic means of adaptation.
Subfield of anthropology that describes the characteristics of human language and studies the relationships between language and the cultures that speak them
The subfield of anthropology tat studies the human cultural past and reconstructs past cultural systems.
Any object that has been consciously manufactured.
Assuming an interrelationship among parts of a subject.
Focusing on the interaction of biology and culture.
Studying another culture from its point of view without imposing our own cultural values.
The method of inquiry that requires the generation, testing and acceptance or rejection of hypotheses
The process of conducting scientific inquiry
Things found if hypothesis is correct
Repetition, Universality, Explanations for exceptions, New data
A proposed explanation for a natural phenomenon
The process of developing a general explanation from specific observations
Suggesting specific data that would be found if a hypothesis were true
A general idea that explains a large set of factual patterns
Ideas that are taken on faith and cannot be scientifically tested
A description of a cultural system based on fieldwork within that culture
Scientifically testable ideas that are taken on faith without scientific evidence to support them or even when tested and shown to be false
In biology the idea that species change over time and have a common ancestry
Remains of life forms of the past
Layers of rock and soil under the earth's surface
The study of the earth's surface
The idea that the history of the earth and its life is accounted for by a series of global catastrophes
Idea that present day geological processes can also explain the history of the earth. Can be applied to biological change as well. Comte de Buffon (french mid 1700's) Charles Lyll (Scottish mid 1800's)
Inheritance of acquired characteristics
the wrong idea that adaptive traits acquired during an organism's lifetime can be passed on to its offspring (Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, french late 1700's)
Darwin, Beagle and Wallace
Darwin sailed on the Beagle in 1831. Wallace was tripping in a malaria fever and came up with an idea of natural selection sent the letter to Darwin who refined it and in 1859 wrote Origin of Species then in 1871 wrote Descent of Man applied to people
Evolutionary change based on the differential reproductive success of individuals within a species
2 Remaining questions of Darwin
1. Didn't know HOW traits were passed from parents to offspring. 2. Didn't know WHERE variation came from
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
Worked in monastary with pea plants and is father of genetics. Described laws of inheritance.
The portions of the DNA molecule that code for specific production of proteins
Variants of a gene that code for different expressions of a trait.
An allele that is expressed in a gene pair of unlike alleles
An allele that is only expressed if present in a like gene pair
Chemical or physical results of the genetic code
When both alleles of a gene pair are expressed in the phenotype
Alleles possessed by an organism
Having two of the same allele in a gene pair TT or tt
Having two different alleles in a gene pair Tt
Reproducing without sex by fissioning or budding
Cells of reproduction, which contain only half the chromosomes of a normal cell
Any spontaneous change in the genetic code
Molecule that carries the genetic code
Molecules that make cells and carry out cellular functions
Chief components of protiens
Total genetic endowment of an organism
Molecule that in two form translates and transcribes the genetic code into protiens and corrects mutations
When an organism has physical traits and behaviors that allow it to survive in a particular environment
Science that studies the network of relationships within environmental systems
Environment of an organism and its adaptive response to that environment
Place occupied by a species
A specific set of environmental relationships
Selection for reproductive success in plants and animals that is directed by humans. Also called selective breeding.
All the alleles in a population
Strands of DNA in the nucleus of a cell
Exchange of genes among populations through interbreeding
Genetic change based on random changes within a species' gene pool; includes fission and the founder effect, and gamete sampling
Here the splitting up of a population to form new populations
Genetic differences between populations produced by the fact that genetically different individuals established the populations
The genetic change caused when genes are passed to new generations in frequencies unlike those of the parental generation
Evolution of a new species
Something that stands for something else, with no necessary ling between the symbol and its meaning
Any object consciously manufactured. Usually refers to human made objects but now includes those made by other primates
Large-brained, mostly tree dwelling mammal with three dimensional color vision and grasping hands. Humans are primates
An unmodified natural object used as a tool
A behavior having most but not all of the characteristics of a cultural behavior
A primitive portion of the brain involved in self-preservation behaviors such as mating aggressiveness and territoriality
A portion of the brain involved in emotions such as fear, rage, and care for the young
A portion of the brain involved in conscious thought, spatial reasoning, and sensory perception
A group of organisms living together in an ordered community. In the case of humans, a group with a shared culture.
The collective interpretation of and response to the natural and cultural environments in which a group of people lives. Their assumptions about those environments and values derived from those assumptions.
To arrange systematically. To put into words and other symbols.
Religious system that recognizes a single supernatural being
Archaeology of a society that has written records
Interpreting archaeological data through the observation of analogous activities in existing societies
A subfield of anthropology applied to legal matters. Usually involved in identifying skeletal remains and assessing the time and cause of death
The process of understanding ancient skills and technologies by reproducing them
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