The junction of the acromion process of the scapula with the distal clavicle.
One of the contractile protein filaments in muscles.
An injury having a sudden onset, characterized by specific pain and swelling and inability to use the injured area normally.
The devotion or surrendering of oneself to something habitually or obsessively.
Movement toward the midline of the body.
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
One of the chemical by-products of the breakdown of ATP during muscle contraction.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
The immediately usable form of chemical energy needed for all cellular function, including muscular contractions.
The amount of programmed exercise someone engages in during a specified time period compared to the amount of exercise recommended for that time period.
Diabetes and type-two diabetes.
In the presence of oxygen.
A metabolic pathway that requires oxygen to facilitate the use of glycogen for energy (ATP).
On of the three domains of learning; involves the learning of emotional behaviors.
The ability to accelerate, decelerate, and quickly change direction of the position of the body in space, with speed and accuracy.
The muscle directly responsible for observed movement; also called the prime mover.
One of two main hormones released by the adrenal cortex; plays a role in limiting sodium excretion in the urine.
Endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas responsible for synthesizing and secreting the hormone glucagon, which elevates the glucose levels in the blood.
The smallest membranous air sacs located at the terminal ends of bronchioles where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the blood and air in the lungs.
The absence of menstruation.
American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers
One of the two performing rights societies in the United States that represent music publishers in negotiating and collecting fees for the nondramatic performance of music.
Americans with Disabilities Act
Civil rights legislation designed to improve access to jobs, work places, and commercial spaces for people with disabilities.
The simplest component of dietary protein.
Without the presence of oxygen.
A metabolic pathway that does not require oxygen, the purpose of which is to transfer the bond energy contained in glucose (or glycogen) to the formation of ATP.
Anaerobic threshold (AT)
The point at which exercise intensity can no longer meet the metabolic demands of the muscles aerobically and muscles have to rely on anaerobic metabolism for ATP.
Standing erect with the feet and palms facing forward.
Effects related to masculine characteristics associated with manhood.
A disorder caused by a low hemoglobin content in the blood, which reduces the amount of oxygen available to the body's tissues; symptoms include fatigue, breathlessness after exercise, giddiness, and loss of appetite.
An eating disorder characterized by self-starvation, distorted body image, and an intense fear of becoming obese.
The muscle that acts in opposition to the action of the agonist muscle.
The measurement of the human body and its parts most commonly measured using skin folds, girth measurements, and body weight.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
A hormone released hy the posterior pituitary gland during exercise; reduces urinary excretion of water and prevents dehydration.
Chemicals that protect membranes, lipid rich organelles, and lipoproteins (like HDL cholesterol) from being attacked by destructive agents known as free radicals; include vitamin C and E, beta carotene, and selenium.
The main artery exiting the left ventricle of the heart.
A pulse point located a the apex of the heart.
A term to describe participants who have no known diseases, no disease symptoms, and two or fewer cardiovascular disease risk factors.
The 126 bones that from the extremities.
An external force acting on a system (body or body segment).
Abnormal heart rhythm
Blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to vital organs and the extremities.
Smaller divisions of the arteries
Inflammatory condition involving a joint. Referes to Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid arthritis.
The point of contact of connection between bones or between bones and cartilage; also called joint.
Associative stage of learning
The second stage of learning a motor skill when performers have mastered the fundamentals and can concentrate on skill refinement.
Assumption of risk
A defense used to show that a person has voluntarily accepted known dangers by participating in a specific activity.
An obstructive pulmonary disease caused by constriction of the breathing passages.
The two upper chambers of the heart (right and left).
A reduction in muscle size (muscle wasting) due to inactivity or immobilization.
Autonomous stage of learning
The third stage of learning a motor skill when the skill has become habitual or automatic for the performer.
The bones of the head, neck, and trunk.
The ability to maintain equilibrium or a desired posture for a set amount of time while stationary or moving.
Dynamic stretching characterized by rhythmic bobbing or bouncing motions representing relatively high-force, short-duration movements.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
The energy required to complete the sum total of life-sustaining processes, including ion transport (40% BMR), protein synthesis (20% BMR), and daily functioning such as breathing, circulation, and nutrient processing (40% BMR).
Regular pulsations that have an even rhythm and occur in a continuous pattern of strong and weak pulsations.
Beta-adrenergic blocking agents
Medications used for cardiovascular and other medical conditions that block or limit sympathetic nervous system stimulation; commonly called "beta blockers."
Beta-adrenergic stimulating agents
Medications used for treating asthma and other pulmonary disorders that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system to cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscles; sometimes referred to as "beta agonists."
Endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas responsible for synthesizing and secreting the hormone insulin, which lowers the glucose levels in the blood.
Fatty acid oxidation.
Binge eating discorder
Characterized by frequent binge eating (without purging) and feelings of being out of control when eating.
A noninvasive body-composition assessment method measuring electrical current flow through the body.
Balancing the musculoskeletal stress of various movements.
A certificate or document granting permission that varies and applies to a number of situations
The driving force that pushes blood through the circulatory system; the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries, measured in millimeters of mercury.
The makeup of the body considered as a two-component modle: lean body mass and fat mass.
A component of the body, the primary role of which is to store energy for later use.
Body mass index (BMI)
A relative measure of body height to body weight to determine degree of obesity.
The ligament that extends from the lateral side of the uterus to the pelvic wall; keeps the uterus centrally placed while providing stability within the pelvic cavity.
Broadcast Music, Inc
One of two performing rights societies in the United States that represent music publishers in negotiating and collecting fees for the nondramatic performances of music
Name given to describe the continuous branching of the trachea into the bronchi and bronchioles of the lungs
The smallest tubes that supply air to the alveoli in the lungs
An obstructive pulmonary disease caused by inflammation of the mucus membranes and bronchial tubes in the lungs.
An eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by self-induced vomiting, fasting, or the use of diuretics or laxatives.
A state of emotional exhaustion caused by stress from work responsibilities.
A relatively harmless and naturally occurring central nervous system stimulant that can be found in about 63 different species of plants (notably coffee and cocoa beans, cola nuts, and tea leaves) and any products made from those plants.
The most abundant mineral in the body; involved in the conduction of nerve impulses, heart function, muscle contraction, and the operation of certain enzymes; an in adequate supply of calcium contributes to osteoperosis.
Calorie (note capital C)
calorie (note lower case c)
The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius; often used incorrectly in place of kilocalorie (1 kilocalorie = 1,000 calories).
Uncontrolled multiplication of certain cells of the body, which can lead to death in the host.
The total amount of energy produced.
The smallest divisions from arterioles and leading to venules; site of exchange of nutrients and metabolic waste products.
A primary foodstuff used for energy; dietary sources include sugars (simple) and grains, rice, potatoes, and beans (complex). Carbohydrate is stored as glycogen in the muscles and liver and is transported in the blood as glucose.
The amount (quantity) of blood pumped from the heart per minute.
The work that the heart is able to perform beyond that required of it under ordinary circumstances.
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF)
The ability to perform large muscle movement over a sustained period; related to the capacity of the heart-lung system to deliver oxygen for sustained energy production. Also called cardiorespiratory endurance or aerobic fitness.
The portion of a group exercise class designed for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition and keeping the heart rate elevated for a sustained time period.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
General term for any disease of the heart.
the capacity of the heart, blood vessels, and lungs to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the working muscles and tissues during sustained exercise and to remove metabolic waste products that would result in fatigue.
A pulse point located on the carotid artery in the neck about 1 inch below the jaw line, next to the esophagus
A smooth, semi-opaque material that absorbes shock and reduces friction between the bones of a joint.
Hormones (e.g. epinephrine and norepinephrine) released as part of the sympathetic response to exercise.
Central nervous system (CNS)
The brian and spinal cord.
The seven vertebral bones of the neck.
A fatty substance found in blood and body tissues and in certain foods (it is absorbed relatively intact in the diet). In the body it is produced by the liver and is a basic unit for many cells and hormones in the body.
A gradual softening and degeneration of the articular cartilage, usually involving the back surface of the patella (kneecap). This condition may produce pain and swelling of a grinding sound or sensation when the knee is flexed and extended.
Characterized by increased mucus secretion and a productive cough lasting several months to several years.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Term for a spectrum of airway disorders including asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema
A biplanar movement involving the sequential combination of flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction.
Specific objectives for each class meeting, clarifying what the instructor expects the participants to accomplish during each exercise session; objectives help instructors focus on the purpose of each selected exercise and activity.
Closed-chain exercises (CCE)
Exercises that use the body muscles in a weight bearing position; co-contractors, postural stabilizers and the neuromuscular system are all trained at the same time (eg squats and lunges).
The four small vertebral bones making up the tailbone.
Cognitive stage of learning
The first stage of learning a motor skill when performers make many gross errors and have extremely variable performances.
The main constituent of connective tissue, such as ligaments, tendons, and muscles.
Two of more movement patterns combined and repeated in sequence several times in a row.
Command Style Teaching
A teaching style in which the instructor makes all decisions about rhythm, posture, and duration while participants follow the instructor's directions and movements.
Original, copyrightable sequence or a program of dance steps of exercise routines that may or may not be copyrightable in themselves.
Starch and dietary fibers made up of longer chains of carbohydrate molecules.
A type of isotonic muscle contraction where the muscle develops tension and shortens when stimulated.
Born with (ie a condition)
The tissue that binds together and supports various structures of the body. Ligaments and tendons are connective tissues.
An agreement or promise between two or more parties that creates a legal obligation to do or not to do something.
The protein myofilaments that are essential for muscle contraction.
Any condition that renders some particular movement, activity, or treatment improper or undesirable.
The ability to perform multiple movements simultaneously; The ability to use the sense (eg sight and hearing) together with body parts to perform motor tasks or movements smoothly and accurately.
The exclusive right for a certain number of years, to perform, make, and distribute copies and otherwise use an artistic, musical, or literary work.
When the muscles of the trunk function in harmony to stabilize the spine and pelvis to provide a solid foundation for movement in the extremities. It's a key component necessary for successful performance of most gross motor activities.
One of two main hormones released by the adrenal cortex; plays a major role it maintaining blood glucose during prolonged exercise by promoting protein and triglyceride breakdown.
Creatine phosphate (CP)
A high-energy phosphate compound fount within muscle cells, used to resynthesized ATP for immediate muscle contraction.
Visual or verbal techniques, using hand signals or minimal words, to inform participants of upcoming movements.
The party in a lawsuit who is being sued or accused
The condition resulting from excessive lass of body fluids.
Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
Soreness that occurs 24 to 48 hours after strenuous exercise, the exact cause of which is unknown.
The condition of being influenced or controlled by something else.
The action of lowering a muscle or bone.
A disease of carbohydrate metabolism in which an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin results in an inability to metabolize carbohydrates normally; also known as diabetes mellitus.
A deep, relaxing breathing technique that helps COPD patients improve their breathing capacity
The shaft of a long bone.
The separation of the recti abdominal muscles along the midline of the body.
Diastolic blood pressure
The pressure in the arteries during the relaxation phase (diastole) of the cardiac cycle.
The thermic (heat-producing) effect of food; energy spent on digesting and absorbing food, approximately 10% of all energy expenditure.
Insurance that provides income protection in the event of an injury to the instructor.
Double sugar units called sucrose, lactose, and maltose.
Farthest from the midline of the body, or from the point of attachment of the body part.
A cancer-promoting condition that occurs when a molecule bonds to DNA, which can cause a cellular mutation.
Movement of the foot up toward the shin.
An exaggerated outward curve of the thoracic spine, often associated with vertebral fractures and osteoporosis.
The regular strong pulsation in music occurring in a continuous pattern at an even rhythm.
The length of time of an exercise session.
Muscles that contribute to core stability.
Difficult or labored breathing
Disturbed eating behaviors that jeopardize a person's physical or psychological health
A type of isotonic muscle contraction where the muscle lengthens against a resistance when it is stimulated; sometimes called "negative work."
A sensitive test to identify heart defects.
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
A recording of the electrical activity of the heart.
The action of raising a muscle or bone.
An obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by the gradual destruction of lung alveoli an surrounding connective tissue, in addition to airway inflammation, leading to reduced ability to inhale and exhale
A person who works for another person in exchange for financial compensation. An employee complies with the instructions and directions of their employer and reports to them on a regular basis.
The thin layer of connective tissue covering each individual muscle fiber in skeletal muscle.
A soft tissue lining the internal surface of the diaphysis on a long bone.
The potential to perform work or activity.
Burning more calories then one is consuming, which promotes weight loss.
The layer of connective tissue that entirely surrounds skeletal muscles and thickens into tendons at either end of the muscle.
A hormone released as part of the sympathetic response to exercise.
The end of a long bone, usually wider than the shaft (plural: Epiphyses)
An energy-enhancing substance thought to improve athletic performance.
Essential body fat
Fat thought to be necessary for maintenance of life and reproductive function.
Essencial fatty acids
Fat that cannot be produced by the body and must be supplie by the diet. Linoleic acid is the only essential fatty acid.
Hormones produced by the ovary.
Rotation of the foot to direct the plantar surface outward.
Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)
A measurably increased rate of oxygen uptake following strenuous activity. The extra oxygen is used in the processes that restore the body to a resting stat and adapt it to the exercise just performed. Formerly referred to as oxygen debt.
A process of evaluation an exercise based on its effectiveness and safety.
Exercise-induced asthma (EIA)
More than 80% of all asthmatics experience asthma during exercise. EIA is probably caused by the cooling and then drying of the respiratory tract that accompanies the inspiration of large volumes of dry air during exercise.
The specific level of physical activity at which a person exercises that can be quantified (eg heart rate, work, RPE); usually reflected as a percentage of one's maximal capacity to do work.
The study of how the body functions during physical activity and exercise.
An increase in the angle between the anterior surfaces of articulating bones.
Outward turning about the vertical axis of bone.
Fast-twitch (FT) fiber
A muscle fiber type specialized for anaerobic metabolism; recruited for rapid, powerful movements such as jumping, throwing, and sprinting.
An essential nutrient that provides energy, energy storage, insulation, and contour to the body. 1 gram = 9 kcal.
Vitamins that, when consumed, are stored in the body (particularly the liver and fat tissues); includes vitamins A, D, E, and K.
The simplest component of dietary fat; important for the production of energy during low-intensity exercise.
Fatty acid oxidation
A metabolic pathway involving the breakdown of fatty acids (digested dietary fat) for the production of ATP.
An internal response within a learner; during information processing, it is the correctness or incorrectness of a response that is stored in memory to be used for future reference. Also, verbal or nonverbal information about current behavior that can be used to improve future performance.
The developed embryo and growing human in the uterus, from usually three months after conception to birth.
Carbohydrate chains the body cannot break down for use and which pass through the body undigested.
Fitness tests that can be used in mass teaching situations.
The ability to move joints through their normal full range of motion.
A decrease in the angle between the anterior surfaces of articulating bones.
Food Guide Pyramid
A guide to assist the public with daily food choices that will accomplish dietary goals. Published in 1992 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
A push or a pull that causes or tends to cause a change in a body's motion or shape
Any break in the continuity of a bone, ranging from a simple crack to a severe shatter of the bone with multiple fracture fragments.
A way of designing the cardiovascular segment of a class that uses movements randomly chosen by the instructor.
The number of exercise sessions per week resulting in a training effect.
A plane that divides the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) halves.
The maximum physical performance represented by maximal oxygen consumption.
General liability insurance
Insurance for bodily injury or property damage resulting from general negligence such as wet flooring, an icy sidewalk, or poorly maintained equipment.
Glenohumeral (G/H) joint
The ball and socket joint composed of the glenoid fossa of the scapula and the humeral head.
A hormone released when blood glucose levels are low; stimulates glucose release from the liver to increase blood glucose. Also releases free fatty acids from adipose tissue to be used as fuel.
A devise used by diabetics to check blood sugar.
A measurement of the impact on blood glucose levels after ingestion of carbohydrates.
The storage form of glucose found int he liver and muscles.
Breakdown of glucose, or its storage form glycogen.
Golgi tendon organ (GTO)
A sensory organ within a tendon that, when stimulated, causes an inhibition of the entire muscle group to protect against too much force.
Graded exercise test
A physician-supervised diagnostic examination to assess a participant's physiological response to exercise in a controlled environment.
Growth hormone (GH)
A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that facilitates protein synthesis in the body.
Health Belief Model
Suggests that individuals adopt (or do not adopt) healthy behaviors based largely on their appraisal of their susceptibility to an illness combined with their perception of the probable severity of the consequences of having the illness. An additional aspect of this model is the person's view of the benefits of the behavior change as contrasted with the difficulty of changing.
A vital process that identifies individuals at high risk for exercise-induced heart problems that need to be referred to appropriate medical care as needed.
Heart rate (HR)
The number of heart beats per minute.
Heart rate reserve
The result of subtracting the resting heart rate from the maximal heart rate; represents the working heart rate range between rest and maximal heart rate within which all activity occurs.
Guidelines regarding when exercise can be safely undertaken or when it should be avoided based on measures of heat and humidity.
A measure of the number of red cells found in the blood, stated as a percentage of the total blood volume. The normal range is 43-49% in men and 37-43% in women.
A protein molecule in red blood cells specifically adapted to carry oxygen molecules.
Disruption of blood flow to the brain caused by the presence of a blood clot of hematoma.
Compounds that increase cancer risk, created by charbroiling and grilling foods.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL cholesterol)
Cholesterol that helps move body lipids from places of storage to places of use; referred to as "good" cholesterol.
A normal by-product of metabolism that can promote development of heart-disease.
The process of providing an adequate amount of liquid to bodily tissues.
A process by which liquid fats are turned into solids.
An underwater test that measures the percentage of lean body weight and body fat, based on the principle that fat floats and muscle and bone sink; considered to the gold standard od body composition assessment due to its accuracy.
Extension of an articulation beyond anatomical position.
An abnormally high content of sugar in the blood.
High blood pressure.
A life-threatening increase in core body temperature.
A congenital heart defect involving a thickening of the heart muscle.
An increase in the size of individual muscle cells.
A blood sugar deficiency caused by too little glucose, too much insulin, or too much exercise in the insulin-dependent diabetic.
Low blood sodium levels as a result of overconsumption of water.
Decrease in the amount of oxygen in inspired air that usually occurs at high altitudes.
A band of connective tissue that extends from the iliac crest to the knee and links the gluteus maxims to the tibia.
Inclusion style of teaching
A teaching style that enables multiple levels of performance to be taught within the same activity.
Incompletely fermented fibers
Fibers that do not bind with water, fluids, or cholesterol; serve the function of "scraping" the sides of the bowel.
The loss of sphincter control that results in the inability to retain urine, semen, or feces.
People who conduct business on their own on a contract basis and are not employees of an organization.
Individual medical insurance
Insurance that provides hospitalization and major medical coverage.
A written statement signed by a client prior to testing that informs him or her of testing purposes, processes, and all potential risks and discomforts.
The ligament that extends from the anterior, superior iliac spine to the pubic tubercle.
Fiber that does not bind with water, fluids, or cholesterol, accelerating the passage of foods through the body while slowing the digestive processes (includes cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignins found in wheat bran, vegetables, and whole-grain breads and cereals.)
A hormone secreted into the bloodstream by the pancreas that regulates carbohydrate metabolism.
Insulin-like growth factos
Polypeptides structurally similar to insulin that are secreted either during fetal development or during childhood and that mediate growth hormone activity.
The result of hypoglycemia, not enough sugar in the blood, in which diabetics experience symptoms such as anxiety, confusion, headache, and irritability; if unchecked may lead to insulin shock.
The condition produced when there is excessive insulin present in the bloodstream, causing rapid pulse, dizziness or headache, disorientation, and fainting with possible unconsciousness.
Physiological stress on the body during exercise; indicates how hard the body should work to achieve a training effect.
Fat stored deep inside the body.
Inward turning about the vertical axis of bone.
Exercising at high-intensity levels for brief periods (10 seconds to 5 minutes) with intervening rest or relief periods at a lover intensity to allow heart rate to decline.
Rotation of the foot to direct the plantar surface inward.
A nutritional deficiency characterized by a lack of hemoglobin or poorly formed red blood cells.
Lack of blood flow to the heart muscle.
A sudden disruption of cerebral circulation in which blood supply to the brain is either interrupted or diminished
Islets of Langerhans
Irregular clusters of endocrine cells scattered throughout the tissue of the pancreas that secrete insulin and glucagon.
A type of muscular contraction where tension developed within the muscle changes throughout the range of motion; performed with the use of special equipment; also referred to as "variable resistance" exercise.
A type of muscular contraction where the muscle is stimulated to generate tension but no joint movement occurs.
A type of muscular contraction where the muscle is stimulated to develop tension and joint movement occurs.
Controlled isometric contraction and relaxation of the muscles surrounding the vagina to strengthen and gain control of the pelvic floor muscles.
The term used to express energy intake and expenditure in nutrition and exercise. A calorie is a unit of energy, specifically the amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree Celsius; 1 kcal equals 1,000 calories.
The study of the form, pattern, or sequence of movement without regard for the forces that may produce that motion.
The study of the principles of mechanics and anatomy in relation to human movement.
Kinesthetic awareness (kinesthesis)
The perception of body position and movement in space.
The branch of mechanics that describes the effects of forces on the body.
Excessive posterior curvature of the spine, typically seen in the thoracic region.
A typel of curve of the spine; concave anteriorly and convex posteriorly
Lactic acid (LA)
A by-product of anaerobic glycolysis thought to cause localized muscle fatigue associated with very high-intensity exercise.
Away from the midline of the body or the outside
bending of the vertebral column to the side
Law of acceleration
Newton's second law of motion stating that the force acting on a body in a given direction is equal to the body's mass times its acceleration in the direction.
Law of gravity
Newton's theory stating that every object in the inverse attracts every other object with a force that is proportional to the product of the asses of the two objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Law of inertia
Newton's first law of motion stating that a body at rest will staty at rest and a body in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by and outside force
Law of reaction
Newton's third law stating that for every applied force there is an equal and opposite reactive force.
Lean body mass
The components of the body including muscles, bones, nervous tissue, skin, blood and organs.
A type of fat called phospholipid manufactured by the body and having both a water-soluble and fat-soluble portion.
A rigid bar that rotates around a fixed support (fulcrum) in response to an applied fource.
Strong, fibrous tissue that connects one bone to another.
Consists of one movement that transitions into another without cycling sequences.
The only essential fatty acid. Essential fatty acid
The name for fats used in the body and bloodstream.
A complex of lipid molecules, which transport cholesterol and other lipids throughout the body.
Excessive anterior curvature of the spine that typically occurs at the low back (may also occur at the neck.)
Low-back pain (LBP)
A general term to describe a multitude of back conditions, including muscular and ligament strains, sprains, and injuries. The cause of LBP is often elusive; most LBP is probably caused by muscle weakness and imbalance.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol
Cholesterol involved in the artery-blocking process; referred to as "bad" cholesterol.
The five vertebrae in the low back, just below the thoracic vertebrae and just above the sacrum.
The main contributors to energy intake in the diet; carbohydrate, protein, and fat.
Maximal heart rate
The highest heart rate a person can attain.
Maximal heart rate formula
A formula for determining target heart rate based on a percentage of the maximal heat rate. (220-age)
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)
The point at which the body's ability to take in oxygen from the atmosphere via the pulmonary system, transport it via the cardiovascular system, and utilize it vai the muscular system reaches a point of little or no change with an additional workload; a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness.
One group of beats in a musical composition marked by the regular occurrence of the heavy accent.
Toward the midline of the body, or the inside
Large intake levels of vitamins and minerals, possibly dangerous to health.
The organization of beats into musical patterns or measures.
Special chemicals needed in minute amounts; found widely in foods; vitamins and minerals.
Inorganic (non-carbon-containing) compounds the body requires that must be provided in the diet.
A highly specialized structure within cells where aerobic glycolysis takes place for energy production; sometimes called the "powerhouse" of the cell.
The degree to which an articulation is allowed to move before being restricted by surrounding tissues.
Type of exercise.
Single sugar units called glucose, fructose, and galactose.
A type of unsaturated fat (liquid at room temperature) that has one spot on the fatty acid for the addition of a hydrogen atom (eg oleic acid in olive oil).
One of the three domains of learning; involves the learning od motor skills.
Motor end plates
The location of the synapse of a motor neuron and muscle cell; also called the neuromuscular junction.
Nerve cells that conduct impulses from the CNS to the periphery signaling muscles to contract or relax, regulating muscular movement.
The degree to which movements using agility, balance, and coordination are executed.
A motor nerve and all of the muscle fibers it stimulates.
A common neuromuscular disorder involving the progressive degeneration of muscle function, including increased muscle spasticity.
The sensory organ within a muscle that is sensitive to stretch and thus protects the muscle against too much stretch.
The capacity of muscle tissues to resist internal and external loads.
The symmetry of the interconnected components of muscle and connective tissue.
The ability of a muscle or muscle groups to exert force against a resistance over a sustained period of time.
The maximal force a muscle or muscle group can exert during contraction.
Thread-like protein strands composing individual muscle cells.
Collective term for the contractile proteins of a muscle fiber; actin and myosin.
Contractile protein in a myofibril.
MyPyramid Food Guidance System
An educational tool designed to help consumers make healthier food and physical activity choices for a healthy lifestyle that are consistent with the 2005 USDA dietary guidelines.
Near-infrared (NIR) light interactance
A body-composition assessment technique that analyzes the amount of near-infrared light reflected from the biceps based on the principle that body fat absorbes light while lean body mass reflects light.
Failure of a person to perform as a reasonable and prudent professional would perform under similar circumstances.
The basic anatomical unit of the nervous system; the nerve cell.
A chronic disease linked to diabetes involving diminished sensations in distal extremities (peripheral neuropathy) or altered heart rate (autonomic neuropathy).
Neutral spine position
The balance of vertebrae in the three naturally occurring curves: two slight anterior curves at the neck and low back and one slight posterior curve in the thoracic region.
Preservatives used in certain foods (hot dogs and lunch meats) that are converted to carcinogenic nitrosamines, which may increase risk for stomach cancers.
Carcinogenic compounds converted from nitrate/nitrite preservatives in the stomach.
A hormone released as part of the sympathetic response to exercise.
Components of food needed by the body. There are six classes of nutients: water, minerals, vitamins, protein, carbohydrates, and fats.
An excessive accumulation of body fat. Usually defined as more than 20% above ideal weight, or over 25% body fat for men and over 32% body fat for women; also can be defined as a Body Mass Index of >30kg/m2, or a waist girth of >40 inches in men and >35 inches in women.
Omega-3 fatty acids
Fats (found in cold water fish) that can lower blood cholesterol, help prevent blood clots, and may lower high blood pressure.
Open-chain exercise (OCE)
Exercise in which a muscle or muscle group is isolated to function alone (eg seated leg extension).
A degenerative bone disease involving a wearing away of joint cartilage.
A condition in which bones weaken and soften due to progressive loss of calcium.
The principle that a physiological system subjected to above normal stress will respond by increasing in strength or function accordingly.
A term to describe an excessive amount of weight for a given height, using height-to-weight ratios.
Enzymes that initiate fat metabolism by breaking down free fatty acids into aceytl CoA.
Oxygen consumption (VO2)
The process by which oxygen is used to produce energy for cellular work; also called oxygen uptake.
A situation created at exercise onset when actual oxygen consumption does not immediately meet the physiological requirement for oxygen.
Substances that bind and decrease calcium absorption in the body.
Part-to-whole teaching strategy
A teaching strategy involving breaking a skill down into its component parts and practicing each skill in its simplest form before placing several skills in a sequence.
The pressure of each gas in a multiple gas system, such as air, which is composed of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.
Peak flow meter
A device used to measure the flow of air through the lungs; useful for COPD patients to aid in activity selection.
The muscles and tissues that act as a support of reinforcement to the lower border of the pelvis.
Performing rights society
An organization to which the copyright or publishers assigns the nondramatic performing rights in a musical composition.
The fibromuscular tissue located between the lower part of the vagina and the anal canal.
A connective tissue sheath surrounding the out surface of the diaphysis of a long bone.
A fatty substance that has a fat-soluble end and a water-soluble end; an essential part of cell membranes that does not supply calories.
Process by which plants turn radiant energy (sunlight) into chemical energy.
Two or more measures of music.
Daily movement through either planned activity (exercise) or daily living activities; the most variable component of total energy expenditure at 10-30%.
Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q)
A brief, self-administered medical questionnaire recognized as a safe pre-exercise screening measure for low-to-moderate (but not vigorous) exercise training.
The physical components of well-being that enable a person to function at an optimal level.
The balance of movement intensity (when sequencing moves) combined with movement selection based on the duration of the class.
A non-nutrient component of plant seeds that binds with minerals, forming insoluble complexes that the body excretes unused.
Biologically active compounds in plants thought to have anti-cancer and anti-heart disease properties when consumed as part of a healthy diet.
The vascular organ in mammals that unites the fetus to the maternal uterus and mediates the metabolic exchanges.
A party who brings a suit against another party in a court of law.
Inflammation of the plantar fascia, a broad band of connective tissue running along the sole of the foot; caused by stretching of tearing the tissue, usually near the attachment at the heel.
Distal movement of the plantar surface of the foot; opposite of dorsiflexion.
The liquid portion of the blood.
High-intensity movements, such as jumping, involving high-force loading of the body weight on the landing phase of the movement.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Compounds that increase cancer risk, created by charbroiling and grilling foods.
A type of unsaturated fat (liquid at room temperature) that has two or more spots on the fatty aid available for hydrogen (e.g. corn, safflower, soybean oils).
Toward the back of dorsal side.
The period of time after childbirth
The rate at which work is performed; strength over time expressed as
[force x distance]/time; The ability to perform explosive work
Practice style of teaching
A teaching style that provides opportunities for individualization and includes practice time and individualized instructor feedback.
Methods or principles for successful group exercise instruction, including professional attributes such as knowing participants' health histories, being available to orient new participants before class, and having music/equipment cued and ready to go before class begins.
Preparticipation (pre-exercise) screening
The process of determining someone's health and fitness status before beginning an exercise program.
The two main branches of the trachea or windpipe.
A muscle responsible for a specific movement.
Professional liability insurance
Insurance to protect an instructor against professional negligence of failure to perform as a competent and prudent professional would under similar circumstances.
Hormone produced by the corpus luteum, adrenal cortex, and placenta, the function of which is to facilitate growth of the embryo.
Assessment of progress toward recovery from an accident or condition.
Goals established by the instructor to aid participants in developing personal fitness goals, reflecting what the instructor expects students to gain from participation in the grop exercise program.
Internal rotation of the forearm causing the radius to cross diagonally over the ulna and the palm to face posteriorly.
The reception of stimuli produced within the body.
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
A stretching technique involving statically stretching a muscle immediately after maximally contracting it against resistance.
Somatic sensory receptors in muscles, tendons, ligaments, joint capsules, and skin that gather information about body position and the direction and velocity of movement.
Compound composed of amino acids that is the major structural component of all body tissue; a complete protein is protein containing all nine amino acids essential to health.
Nearest to the midline of the body or point of attachment of the body part.
Balancing movement complexity with simplicity to avoid compromising form, technique, and safety, and to limit participation frustration.
Playing a recording of a copyrighted musical composition at a place where a substantial number of persons outside of a normal circle of a family and its social acquaintances are gathered.
The entity to which the owner of a copyrighted artistic, musical, or literary work assigns such copyright for licensing and income-collection purposes.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per minute.
The wave of pressure in the arteries that occurs each time the heart beats.
A pulse point located on the thumb side of the wrist.
Range of motion (ROM)
The number of degrees that an articulation will allow one of its segments to move.
Rating of perceived exertion (RPE)
A scale that correlates the participants' perceptions of exercise effort with accutal intensity.
Nerve tissue that is sensitive to changes in its environment.
Reciprocal style of teaching
Teaching style that involves using an observer of partner to provide feedback to the performer.
Recommended daily allowances (RDA)
The amounts of selected nutrients that adequately meet the known nutrient needs of most healthy Americans.
Recovery heart rate
The number of heartbeats per minute following the cessation of vigorous physical activity. As cardiorespiratory fitness improves, the heart rate returns to resting levels more quickly.
A hormone of pregnancy that softens connective tissue.
Repetition reduction teaching strategy
Teaching strategy involving reducing the number of repetitions that make up a movement sequence.
The number of successive contractions performed during each weight-training exercise.
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the cells and the atmosphere.
The movement of air into and out of the lungs.
Resting heart rate
The number of heartbeats per minute when the body us at complete rest; usually counted first thing in the morning before any physical activity.
The training principle explaining that training adaptations will gradually decline if not reinforced by a maintenance program.
A chronic disease caused by an immune response leading to inflammation of the joint membrane.
A regular pattern of movement or sound that can be felt, heard, or seen.
An immediate treatment for injury: rest, ice, compression, and elevation
A characteristic, inherited trait, or behavior related to the presence or development of a condition or disease.
Minimizing the risk of potential legal liability.
The classification of participants into risk strata to identify the need for referral to a healthcare provider; to ensure safety of exercise testing and participation, and to determine the appropriate type of exercise text or program.
Movement in the transverse plane about a longitudinal axis; can be internal or external.
A group of four relatively small muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subsacpularis) that acts ti oppose the constant force of gravity to disclose the joint and stabilize the humeral head by pulling it inward and slightly downward in the glenohumeral joint.
Ligament found on the side of the uterus near the fallopian tube insertion to help the broad ligament keep the uterus in place.
Part of the axial skeleton; fused together into one bone as the sacrum.
A plane that divides the body into right and left halves.
The basic functional unit of the myofibril containing the contractile proteins that generate skeletal muscle movements.
Fatty acids carrying the maximum number of hydrogen atoms; these fats are solid at room temperature and are usually of animal origin.
Combined action of scapular and humeral movement.
Scapulothoracic (S/T) articulation
The articulation of the scapula with the thorax beneath it.
Severe pain in the leg, running from the back of the thigh down the inside of the leg as a result of the compression of, or trauma to, the sciatic nerve.
Excessive lateral curvature of the spine.
Scope of practice
The range and limit of responsibilities normally associated with a specific job of position.
A phenomenon that increases knee joint stability by locking the femur on the tibia (or vice-versa) when the knee is fully extended.
Self-check style of teaching
A teaching style that relies on individual performers to provide their own feedback.
Nerve cells that convey electrical impulses from sensory organs in the periphery (such as skin) to the spinal cord and brain (CNS).
Lipids found circulating in the blood.
A general term for any pain or discomfort on the front side of the lower leg in the region of the shin bone (tibia); a common, chronic aerobics injury with several causes.
Scapulothoracic (S/T) articulation
Shoulder joint complex
The three segments of the shoulder: the scapula, clavicle, and humerus.
Single sugars (monosaccharides) and double sugars (disaccharides).
Simple to complex teaching style
Teaching strategy used to allow participants to learn complex movement at a slower pace, emphasizing proper placement of configuration of a movement pattern (eg teaching a movement at half-tempo).
Slow-twitch (ST) fiber
A muscle fiber type designed for use of aerobic glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation, recruited for low-intensity, longer-duration activities such as walking and swimming.
Fiber that binds fluid to delay stomach emptying and glucose absorption, lower blood cholesterol, and aid against constipation.
Spatial teaching strategy
Teaching strategy used when introducing participants to a new body position, involving describing the position of different portions of the body.
Exercise training principle explaining that specific exercise demands made on the body produce specific responses by the body; also called exercise specificity.
The ability to perform a movement within a short period of time or move quickly from one point to another.
A circular muscle, the function of which is constricting an opening.
Overstretching or tearing of a ligament and/or joint capsule, resulting in discoloration, swelling, and pain.
A lifestyle-modification model that suggests that people go through distinct, predictable stages when making lifestyle changes; precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. The process is not always linear; individuals may move back and forth between stages.
Standard or care
Appropriateness of an exercise professional's actions in light of current professional standards and based on the age, condition, and knowledge of the participant.
The bony configuration of joints, fibrocartilages, and ligaments that contribute to core stability.
Holding a nonmoving (static) position to immobilize a joint in a position that places the desired muscles and connective tissues passively at their greatest possible length.
Statute of limitation
A formal regulation limiting the period within which a specific legal action may be taken.
The term that describes the point at which the energy needs of the body during exercise are being met aerobically.
Step test (submaximal)
A test for cardiovascular fitness that requires the subject to step up and down from a bench at a prescribed rate for a given period.
Sternoclavicular (S/C) joint
The junction of the sternum and the proximal clavicle
Overstretching or tearing of a muscle or tendon
An incomplete fracture caused by excessive stress (overuse) to a bone. Most common in the foot (metatarsal bones) and lower leg (tibia).
An involuntary motor response that, when stimulated, causes a suddenly stretched muscle to respond with a corresponding contration.
Stroke volume (SV)
the amount (quantity) of blood pumped per heart beat.
A way of designing the cardiovascular segment of a class that uses formally arranges movement patterns repeated in a predetermined order.
Fatty deposits or fat pads of storage fat found under the skin.
External rotation of the forearm (radioulnar joint) that causes the palm to face anteriorly.
An abnormal reduction in blood pressure related to postion (lying on the back).
The fibrocartilaginous joint between the pelvic bones in the midline of the body.
Irritation of the pubic symphysis caused by increased motion at the joint.
Systemic lupus erythmatosus (SLE)
An autoimmune disease that affects connective tissues and results in painful joints and arthritis.
A rhythmic device that temporarily shifts the normal pattern of stresses to unstressed beats or parts of beats.
A muscle that aids another muscle in its action.
Systolic blood pressure
The force generated by the heart during its ventricular contractile phase (systole).
Elevated heart rate over 100 beats per minute.
A method for measuring exercise intensity using observation of respiration effeort and the ability to talk while exercising.
Target heart rate (THR)
Exercise intensity that represents the minimum and maximum intensity for safe and effective exercise; also referred to as training zone.
The rate of speed of music, usually expressed in beats per minute.
Pulse point located on either temple.
Inflammatory response to microtrauma from overuse of a tendon.
Thickened connective tissue at the ends of skeletal muscle that connects muscle to bone.
Pain on the outside of the elbow at the attachment of the forearm muscles.
Nongenetic factors that can cause birth defects in the fetus.
The primary male sex hormone; often abused in supplement from because of its potent anabolic properties.
Regulation of the body's temperature.
The 12 vertebrae to which the ribs are attached.
Tibial stress syndrome
Depth of breathing.
Total energy expenditure
Amount of energy expended in a 24-hour period, which includes basal metabolism, physical activity, and dietary-induced thermogenesis.
Minerals required in very minute amounts for health
Trans fatty acids
Fatty acids created during hydrogenation that provoke heart disease.
The temporary increase in the porosity of the bone as a result of dietary calcium deficiency
Plane that divides the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) parts
The form of 95% of dietary fats and stored fats in adipose tissue, consisting of a glycerol backbone and three fatty acids.
Type 1 diabetes
Form of diabetes caused by the destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas, which leads to little or no insulin secretion; generally develops in childhood and requires regular insulin injections; formerly known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and childhood-onset diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes
Most common form of diabetes; typically develops in adulthood and is characterized by a reduced sensitivity of the insulin target cells to available insulin; usually associated with obesity; formerly known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes millitus (NIDDM) and adult-onset diabeters.
Fatty acids that contain double bonds between carbon atoms and thus are capable of absorbing more hydrogen; liquid at room temperature and usually of vegetable origin.
The regular, weak pulsation in music occurring in a continuous pattern at an even rhythm.
Holding the breath when a great deal of force is exerted (such as when lifting a very heavy weight), increasing thoracic pressure and possibly impeding venous blood return.
Feedback that projects a feeling about a performance, using words such as "good," "well done," or "poor job."
A disruption of circulation
An increase in the number and size of blood vessels enhancing blood supply and oxygen delivery to muscle cells.
Narrowing of the opening of blood vessels (notably the smaller arterioles) caused by contraction of the smooth muscle lining the vessels.
Widening of the openings of blood vessels caused by relaxation of the smooth muscle lining the vessels.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood toward the heart from vital organs and extremities.
Rate and depth of breathing
The two lower chambers of the heart.
Smaller divisions of veins.
Bones that form the spinal column
A type of dietary fiber that helps lover serum cholesterol.
Measurable bodily functions, including pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, skin color, and temperature.
Organic compounds required for optimal health that the body cannot manufacture on its own and must therefore be consumed.
Maximal oxygen uptake
Voluntary abandonment of a right to file suit.
The most important nutrient in the body, responsible for all energy production, temperature control (especially during vigorous exercise), transportation of all nutrients and waste products in and out of the body, and lubrication of joints and other structures.
Vitamins that must be supplied daily, as the body excretes excess amounts (rather than stores them); includes vitamin C and the B-complex vitamins.
Principle stating that bone is capable of adjusting its stregth in proportion to the amount of stress placed on it.
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