hunters and gatherers worked less hours than farmers
farmers lived shorter lives
farmers were shorter and had more tooth decay
both at whim of nature
taming of animals and crops
america at disadvantage because of lack of large animals and it's north to south shape
east to west shape advantageous because of seasons and daylight hours
rise of political authorities
growth of taxation
trade with other groups
form of writing, art, literature, philosophy, and religion
surrounded by deserts and seas
more hopeful and happier
better luck with agriculture
several city-states along Nile
unity with only few threats
cities less important, focus on pharaoh
religion changed to focus more on being buried in tomb
advantageous place for trade
rivers difficult to work with
more vulnerable surroundings
unpredictable and violent environments
ran into difficulties like soil and forest
accumulation of salt caused problems
dozen city-states each rules by a king (representation of god)
had the most urbanized area
unity was imposed by outsiders
Hammurabi was formed which may suggest greater need for laws.
Mesopotamia and Egypt
near rivers and places of agriculture
relied on flood water
have similar structures for different purposes
effected and was affected by the environment
exchanged with eachother
borrowed technology of chariots with horses after being defeated by them
Trade involving Egypt and Mesopotamia
donkeys, watermelon, and Egypt’s most important crops were imported in.
Even their writing (calligraphy) was based on Somalia.
Hebrew and Mesopotamia’s religion show similarities.
Phoenicians took Mesopotamia’s language and made their own letters
elaborately planned cities: drains for sewage, indoor bathrooms
standardized weights and measurments
had gated cities
economic foundation was agriculture and irrigation.
had written language (which we still can not decipher)
no evidence of large palaces or kings
ranking system within stamps
by 1700 cities were abandoned
Ritual bathing, yoga, bulls as religious symbols, were all passed down to present.
contained the beginnings of Hinduism
citizens associated with certain people
diversity of gods, beliefs, and rituals.
5 sacrifices per household per day which is extremely expensive because the priest gets paid for every sacrifice.
After 7000 BCE, agricultural cities emerged on the Yellow River in China.
River was unpredictable, but still useful.
By 200 BCE, dynasties emerged: Xia(2200-1766 BCE)- Yu controlled river; Shang (1766-1122 BCE)- further enlarged Chinese states, people buried alive, bronze was monopolized; Zhou (1122-256 BCE)- largest ruling dynasty, said shang was a drunken tyrant womanizer, mediator between heaven and earth, disunity seen as chaos
China never established a priestly class.
Had an idea of heaven but more impersonal.
Family patriarchs were focused on as well as spirits.
Earliest writing was political (unlike most –trade). Oracle bones were used to write questions of the future and also as aphrodisiac.
Literature was deemed useless.
Warring states Period
Confucius (551-479 BCE)- recognized fundamental inequalities in society, key was that superior must act with sincerity and genuine concern, personal reflection and morals were important, made family model of politics like a miniature state
Daoism- ditch education for personal growth, most followed both Daoism and Confucius, idea of ying and yang.
Common challenges of Empires
Should you impose your own culture?
Should you rule directly?
How to extract taxes while maintaining order?
Empires were sustained at a major cost for human lives. But provided peace and stability.
didn’t have any major revolutions.
Population growth become rapid.
Empires became much larger.
Development of more elaborate communication like trade.
More religion emerged.
Spread of epidemics and diseases.
By 500 BCE Persia empire was already most impressive.
Drew from examples of earlier empires.
Grew much larger than earlier Babylonian empires which they drew from.
Cyrus (557-530 BCE)
35 million people.
Monarchs had absolute power.
Effective ministrative system.
Extensive system of imperial spies.
Developed canal linking dead sea.
Developed 1700 mile long royal road.
Constructed maps of cities.
had smaller city-states which had fierce independence and divided by geography.
Most distinctive feature is the idea of citizenship.
Had an enormous population of slaves.
Wasn’t much political unity between city-states. Still was a feeling of a shared culture.
Athens developed own imperial. In a golden age. War between Athens and Sparta. Athens won but was then exhausted and overtaken by Alexander the Great. Which brought political unity.
Alexander the Great
set off new collisions with the Persians. Anointed pharaoh by Egyptians. Defeated Persia.At age 32, he suddenly died. He spread Greek culture throughout and established new cities like Alexandria. Most famous for its enormous library. Had great admiration of Persia. Started having people kiss his hand and lie on floor in respect. Encouraged inner marriage. After death, empire split into 3. Seleucid Empire took major region.
Sassanid claimed to be direct descendants of original Persian empire. For over 1000 years, legacy of original Persian empire remained a major influence. Emergence of monotheistic religion - Zoroastrianism. Different from Buddhism because material world was not seen as evil. Larger priestly class known as Magi. Largely disappeared in Persia with the rise on Islam.
Han Dynasty Collapse
Empire was too big; raised taxes
growth of large land owning families
Freed peasants turned into tenant farmers and had no interest in the empire
3 faith healing brothers went on to claim apocalyptic new age
private armies developed
emperor was just a figurehead, warlords had real power in later years.
developed effective democracy, had large army, adopted system of legalism-harsh rules, harsh punishments; 100,000 put to work on defenses like walls (Great Wall of China) to keep out nomads of the north; founded on military conquest. standardized writing, currency, weights, measurements. Built bridges and roads. Qin Shi Huang tried pills herbs and potions for immortality and built impressive tomb and sacrificed workers.
Han Wudi sent 1,000,000 chinese settlers to colonize. Strategy worked well for next 100 years. External challenges. How to pay for all of his things? Emperor Wu started a imperial university. Confucian curriculum was focused on.
Mauryan empire (321-184 BCE)
arose from small city-state
eventually conquered all of India except tiny southern point
population of 50,000,000. Military of 60,000.
Mauryan empire- Chandragupta (321-287)
encouraged aggression towards neighbors in book.
Encouraged king to use women as assassins and spies and to kill prince.
Starved himself to death.
Mauryan empire- Ashoka the Great
started reign as great conqueror.
A lot of refugees. Tons of chaos. Well organized bureaucracy.
Set up pillars and rocks.
Eventually ruled vast domain.
Response to conquest was he converted to Buddhism because of his regret and built monasteries.
Greatly encouraged spread of Buddhism.
Despite his good intentions, the empire disappeared 50 years after his death.
Because Too expensive to maintain.
Gupta Empire (320-184 BCE)
ruled much smaller area.
Temporarily provided unity.
Government responsibility in local level. Newcomers constantly flowed in.
Much different than china.
Cotton textile became important.
Forming silk roads.
Set up own port systems.
Jati became important because it provided stability, allowed newcomers to fit somewhere, provided security for the wealthy.
Religious developments were made.
Buddha (Siddartha Gautama 566-486 BCE)
At 35 he found enlightenment and spent rest of life teaching.
thought Sadness and suffering main emotions of people.
Buddha’s foster mother wanted to join and he denied her.
After pressed by the issue from someone else he gave in.
thousands women flocked to this to become Buddhist nuns.
Four Noble Truths: 1.Life is Pain. 2.Pain caused by desire. 3.eliminate desire/suffering. 4.Noble eightfold Path eliminates desire
individuals who had obtained enlightment.
Could carry more people.
Served as inspirationfor people.
People prayed to them for help.
Representations of a future Buddha emerged.
Monasteries became much more common.
Giving gifts to monasteries became seen as a way to gain salvation.
-Buddhism ultimately died out as a religion in India but spread to other places like China. -Hinduism taught that ordinary people could make spiritual progress. -Widespread worship to gods and goddesses.
Jesus vs Buddha
Buddha was more into luxury than Jesus. Jesus was poor.
Both were spiritual . both were into love and compassion.
Jesus followed Jewish ways of one deity.
Buddha largely ignored supernatural.
JC spoke a lot more directly with poor.Very deliberately associated with adulterers tax collectors and lepers. Only 3 years in public service.
Buddha lasted about 40. Buddha didn’t like to actually point people out. Buddha died of old age.
Jesus was crucified.
Minoan and Mycenaean Civilizations (2200-1100 BCE)
may have included Atlantic City myth.
Had working indoor toilets.
Clash against city of Troy.
Extremely violent and chaotic time.
any citizen could hold office.
Over half population wasn’t qualified as citizens, slaves women and children.
1/3 of population was slaves.
Some Greek slaves were given an opportunity to gain freedom.
Women were covered with heavy clothes and veils and stayed at home.
developed a large group of slaves as well.
Wanted to cut off head of any rebellion from slaves.
Known for rigid military discipline.
Boys left home at 7 to train.
Women and men both went through extensive physical training.
Married at 20 but don’t live together until 30 at retirement age.
Women and men relatively equal.
Women could buy land and control husband’s property while he’s at war.
Women wore short dresses and went everywhere and even exercised nude.
Greco-Persian War (500-479 BCE)
Greece was badly divided, lack of political unity.
Sparta had only strong military force.
Persia captured and burned down Athens.
Persia had much less at stake. Greeks had to fight with a panic for freedom.
Persia took for granted their large size over Greece.
Battle of Salamis was very important. Greeks had heavily armored army. Greeks were able to hold off Persia and then Persia gave up.
Socrates (470-399 BCE)
lived in Athens, and his student, plato (430-347) recorded his thoughts. Oracle said Socrates was wisest because atleast he knew he didn’t know anything. Socrates=smart ass.
unlikely rags to riches story.
Romulus and Remus founded Rome, abandoned as infants and raised by mother wolf in wilderness. Romulus killed his brother Remus.
Built a system of roads.
Rather prosperous place over time.
Had geographical advantages: access to seaborn trade, wasn’t as vulnerable to sea raids because it wasn’t actually on water, located in central location to dominate trade routes.
Became republic in 509 BCE.
Councils elected for one year term.
Balanced by a senate, appointed aristocrats. In time of crisis, Rome could appoint dictator, with absolute power for a 6 months term.
Romans built pools, baths, aquaducts, huge coliseums.
Slaves important to Roman society.
Great conflict between patricians and plebeians. Tribunes had divided power.
Relatively stable political.
Viewed each conquering step as defensive.
Success was from military and navy strength.
Proved to be excellent engineers, making catapults and things.
Carthage was burned to the ground and citizens sold to slavery. Even modest families owned a couple of slaves. Most slaves came from POW. But also network of slave trade like pirates. If slave had child, then child was slave too. All slaves could be killed if one acted out. Spartacus led huge revolt for 2 years. Actually did little to change Roman system of slavery. Aristotle wroteabout theatre and theology. Influence Christianity and muslims.
Fall of Roman and Han Dynasties
At their peaks, both states controlled a large portion of the world population and produced political and cultural legacies that endure to the modern era; comparative studies largely focus on their similar scale at their pinnacles and on parallels in their rise and decline.Both the Roman Empire and Han Dynasty were similar in their fall, in that they suffered through significant factors like Germanic Invasions that made them decline in power.
Fall of Roman and Han Dynasties #2
Both the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty became abrogated by the same conflicts. One of the main reasons was due to the great military power of the Germanic legions constantly making attempts to invade the empires. It was very costly to protect their borders from the perpetual invasions sent out by the Germanic leaders. Not even the great Julius Caesar was able to stop the invasions from these barbarous tribes.
Fall of Roman and Han Dynasties #3
Soon both their economies began to suffer from the high prices of protecting their borders from these imperishable invasions. They also both lacked in electing a new ruler
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