- Based on experience - taken for granted - Private (often note voice) - Stable - often hard to change
- Based on systematic observations and testing - Questioned and studied - Public - Validity, Reliability - Subject to modification
Symbol or collection of symbols that has meaning or utility
Porcess of interpretation; how we attend to, attach significance to, and use messages
Text Book's definition of Communication
Human communication is the process through which individuals in relationships, groups, organizations and societies (respond to and create messages) and create and use information to relate to the environment and one another
Communication and Social Science
- Sociology - Psychology - Anthropology
Communication and Liberal Arts
- Philosophy of language; Linguistics - Literary Theory - Feminist Theory
Communication and the Professions
- Law - Business - Medicine
What is a Paradigm?
A broad framework that guides the work of scholars over a long period of time as they conduct research and develop specific theories - Thomas Kuhn
What is an Anomaly?
An inconsistency or discrepant observation that challeneges the paradigm
What 3 Paradigms influence models of communication?
1. Communication Paradigms - MSR=E 2. Communication is message transmission - Communication Anomalies MS=/=MR 3. Constitutive paradigm - All communication is constructed by senders and recievers working together.
4 types of Directional Flow
1. One-way 2. Two-way 3. Circular 4. Interactive - working together to construct a message
What is an Intellectual Paradigm?
What disciplinary field the person is coming from.
Shannon and Weaver's Model - Componenets
- Addition of Encoding/decoding - Message vs Signal - Noise - Correction Channel - SMR= E type model - Deals purley with message transmission, not interpretation - Intellectual Paradigm - Studying engineering problems of signal transmission for Bell Telephone Company - Time - 1949
- Added field of experience - Calls attention to interpretation of message - One-way Model - Intellectual Paradigm - Mass communication - Time - 1954
Katz and Lazarsfeld two-step flow
- Political messages don't affect voting habits, individuals within each others communities do - Linked inter-personal dynamics and Mass communication - Two-step flow - One-way - Intellectual paradigm - Mass communication theorists - Time - 1955 - Communication Paradigm = SMR=E
Westley and Maclean
- Signals and potential signals - Begins with recieving messages - Communication Paradigm = SMR=E - Circular model - feed back - Intellectual Paradigm - Journalism - Time - 1955
- Helical/spiral model - NOT one-way or two-way - SMR=E or constitutive? - Adds TIME to a model of Communication - Intellectual Paradigm - Communication - Time - 1967
Watzlawick, Beavin and Jackson
- Individuals function alternatively as sender and reciever - Messages shaped by Person A and Person B together - YOU CANNOT NO COMMUNICATE BRO - Meanings vary according to individual characteristics - Intellectual Paradigm - Psychology - Two-way interactive - SMR=E
- The message the reciever recieves is NEVER identical to the one the source has sent - Reciever only acquires messages that they are capable of processing/comprehending - Takes into account-abilities - Takes into account-susceptibilities - Communication is an idosyncratic process (Particular to the individual) - People serve as originators and receivers - they shift from one role to the other - Information received can serve as feedback - Circular - Intellectual Paradigm - Communication - Time - 1968
- Bidirectional, interactive - Intellectual Paradgim - Communication
True or False, Biological and Social worlds ARE interdependent arrayed on a hierarchy from low to high complexity
Progression from Atom's to Societies
Atoms Cells Tissues Organs Individuals Relationships Families Groups Organizations Societies
The Edge of a system does what?
Holds parts together
Isolated from the environment
Continual give and take with the environment
What are Living Systems?
- Open systems that go through a life cycle- They take raw materials, use part, emit waste, etc..
How is system Theory relevant to the study of communication?
- Communication enables systems to operate AS systems - Provides for inter-relation and interdependence of part of the system
4 Aspects of communication that allow us to communicate
1. Visual messages 2. Tactile messages - when you touch something 3. Auditory messages 4. Olfactory and gustatory messages - smell and taste
An olfactory message that can be released by an ant to let his friends know he has died and it is time for a burial
Animal vs human communication
- Numbers shown for 7/10 of a second - chimps and humans 80% correct - Numbers shown for 4/10 of a secon - chimps 80%, humans 40% even after 6 months of practice - Chimps are better at memory tasks - remembering routines and Symbol manipulation and creation
Humans and Animals Both us Communication for the following
- Courtship and mating - Reproduction - parent-offspring relationship and socialization - navigation - self-defense - Stress response - flight, flight or fancy - Territoriality
- Meaning is made through symbols - Meanings are negotiated - May be intersubjective (meaning shared)
Invisible Aspect of Communication - Learning
- First-order information processing event - You already know these things from birth - Second-order information processing event - Things you learn through experience - Learning through socialization - EX: Cultural norms, conventions - EX: Little girl trick-or-treating
Invisible Aspect of Communication - Subjectivity
- INdividual/unique understanding of things - Related to experience
Invisible Aspect of Communication - Negotiation
- How is meaning arrived at?
Invisible Aspect of Communication - Culture
- Meanings get "intersubjectified" - (shared, standardized between people) through communications with others - Shared meanigns, view of reality - Common culture is maintained through communication
Interacting contexts and levels
- Individuals - relationships - Groups - Organizations - Societies
Invisible Aspect of Communication - Self-reference
- All communication is autobiographical - Presenting of self
Invisible Aspect of Communication - Self-reflexivity
- Reflecting on our experiences, interactions
Invisible Aspect of Communication - Ethics
Nothing on Ethics..
Invisible Aspect of Communication - Inevitability
- YOU CANNOT NOT COMMUNICATE - Watzlawick, Beavin and Jackson
- Invisible aspects of commmunication may explain why different people's interpretations of a communicative event may be different
What does understand invisible asspects of communication allow us to do?
- It lets use replace a Native theory explanation with a scholarly theory
Definition of Uncommon Sense
- Causes one to continually question one's own assumptions and to become more attentive to others needs and perspectives
TRUE or FALSE - College Grads lack the necessary skills/traits necessary for occupational Effectiveness
Skills for Basic leadership
1. Energizing and empowering others 2. Building and managing teams 3. Interpersonal flexibility
Why doesn't Good Education = Good communication
- Nonverbal communication is over looked in schools - Most aspects of communciation are rarely adressed in most k-12 academic programs and colleges as well
Scholarly Theories are constantly evaluated using these three standards
1. Validity 2. Reliability 3. Utility
Who was considered the founder of the domain of the social Sciences?
Define: A message should have three parts an introduction, body and conclusion.
What do all models try to accomplish?
- To miniaturize, simplify, highlight and emphasize fundamental features of the object, process, or phenomenon they are created to represent
Two most central figures in early communication study:
- Aristotle and Plato - Regarded Communication as an art
Who said the following statement: "Who says what to whom in what channel with what effect."
Which two individuals introduced the term noise as the lable for any distortion that interferes with the message being sent? They also created a correction channel as a means of overcoming the problems created by noise
Shannon and Weaver
Which individual introduced the concept of the field of experience?
Define: Diffusion theory
- Describes the process by which new ideas and technological innovations are introduced and adpoted within a group, organization, or community
Which two individuals found that Political radio and print messages had little effect on public opinion?
Katz and Lazarsfeld
Which two individual's suggested that the communication process begins with the recieving message rather than the sending message?
Westley and Maclean
What man developed a Helix model of communication which allowed a combing of the desirable features of the straigh-line and circle models while avoiding their weaknesses?
Which individuals stressed that communication is not something that occurs only when a source intentionally chooses to send a message?
Watzlawick, Beavin and Jackson
Which individual(s) stated that the message a receiver acquires is never identical to the one a source transmits?
SMR=E is a ______
MS=/=MR is a ________
- Broad theoretical orientations that guide the work of scholars in a field over a substantial period of time - They eventually change.
Example of a Visual Message from a Human
- a Wave, smile from a friend, blush of embarrassment, a tear
Types of tactile messages
- Touch - Bumping - Vibration
What are Symbols?
- Characters, letters, numbers, words, objects, people, or actions that stand for or represent something besides themselves - We live in an environment that is literally FILLED with symbols