view of mental illness in which odd behavior, hearing voices, or talking to oneself was attributed to evil spirits infesting the body.
Perception that regarded mental illness as due to a physical disorder requiring treatment.
EX: Bloodletting, "snake pit"
Institutions for the mentally ill
Approach to mental illness calling for dignity, kindness, and respect for the mentally ill.
Medication that helped the symptoms of schizophrenia and other disorders related to a loss of reality.
1960s and 1970s government policy that focused on releasing hospitalized psychiatric patients into the community and closing mental hospitals.
4.7%. Panic attacks occur when nervous feelings gather momentum and escalate into intense bouts of fear. Peak in less than 10 min. Dizziness, faintness, pounding heart, fears of going crazy or dying.
Repeated and unexpected panic attacks, along with either persistent concerns about future attacks or a change in personal behavior in an attempt to avoid them.
Intense fear of an object or situation that's greatly out of proportion to its actual threat. Must restrict our lives, create considerable distress, or both.
Fear of being in a place or situation in which escape is difficult of embarrassing, or which help is unavailable in the event of a panic attack. Emerges in the midteens and is a direct outgrowth of panic disorder.
Marked fear of public appearances in which embarrassment or humiliation is possible. More than stage fright! Deathly afraid of speaking, eating, or performing in public.
Intense fear of objects, places, or situations that are greatly out of proportion to their actual threat. Ex: thunderstorms, animals, elevators, water, blood phobia. Widespread in childhood but usually disappear with age.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Condition marked by repeated and lengthy immersion in obsessions, compulsions, or both.
Inappropriate and unwanted thoughts, idea, or impulses. Persistent
repetitive behaviors or mental acts performed to reduce or prevent stress.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Marked emotional disturbance after experiencing or witnessing a severely stressful event. Ex: veterans
Major Depressive Episode
State in which a person experiences a lingering depressed mood or diminished interest in pleasurable activities. Symptoms include weight loss and sleep difficulties.
Bipolar I Disorder
Conditioned marked by a history or at least one manic episode.
Experience marked by dramatically elevated mood, decreased need for sleep, increased energy, inflated self-esteem, increased talkativeness, and irresponsible behavior.
severe disorder of thought and emotion associated with a loss of contact with reality. Disturbances in thinking, language, emotion, and relationships with others.
Delusions, Hallucinations, Disorganized Speech
Causes of Anxiety Disorders (Psychological) OCD
Environmental- learned behavior. Operant conditioning. Ex: little albert
Biological- twin studies. Genes affect whether we inherit high levels of neuroticism.
Causes of Anxiety Disorder (Biological) OCD
Biological- Family studies, kids twice as likely to inherit a specific overactive gene. This gene transmits SEROTONIN, Malfunction of the caudate nucleus
Causes of Depression (Psychological)
Social-depressed people elicit hostility and rejection from others, which in turn maintains or worsens their depression.
Having negative beliefs and expectations about one's self.
Causes of Depression (Biological)
Biological- low levels of serotonin and norephinephrine
Causes of Bipolar Disorder (Biological)
Biological- sensitivity to dopamine receptors and decrease in the sensitivity of serotonin receptors. 85% heritability
Causes of Bipolar Disorder (Psychological)
Stressful life events and positive life events can trigger manic episodes.
Causes of Schizophrenia (Biological)
Ventricles are enlarged and deteriorate
Increased size of the sucli
Decreases in the activation of the amygdala and hippocampus
Dopamine pathways cause schizophrenic symptoms like paranoia
Types of Schizophrenia
Catatonic, Paranoid, and Disorganized
Causes of Schizophrenia (Psychological/Environmental)
Family members response to schizophrenia increases symptoms and can cause relapse.
Expressed Emotion- criticism, hostility, and over involvement.
Prevalence of Suicide
11th leading cause of death in US
3rd leading cause for children, young adults, and adolescents
FREUD. Make the patient aware of previously repressed impulses, conflicts, and memories, make the unconscious conscious. Dream analysis, free association, interpretation, resistance, transference, and working through
a psychological intervention deigned to help people resolve emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal problems and improve the quality of their lives.
technique in which patients express themselves without censorship of any sort.
Less intense form of psychoanalytic therapy. Emphasize role of making the unconscious conscious, early childhood experiences, and interpersonal relationships.
Emphasis on development of human potential and the belief that human nature is inherently good.
Do not tell patients how to solve their problems, unconditional positive regard, they just need a good "listening" to.
Focus on specific problem behaviors, and current variables that maintain problematic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
Positive and Negative reinforcement, identify and quantify the problem, implement a strategy. Ex: Disruptive behavior in children
Belief that people with mental health disorders have distorted thought patterns and long-held negative core beliefs. Goal is to replace irrational and negative beliefs with more rational and adaptive ones.
Patients are taught to relax as they are gradually exposed to what they fear in a stepwise manner.
Therapy that confronts patients with what they fear with the goal of reducing that fear.
treatment that attempts to replace maladaptive or irrational cognitions (thoughts) with more adaptive, rational cognitions (thoughts).
Patients immediately experience their greatest fear, with no aversive consequences.
Anxiety- Anti-anxiety medication
Bipolar Disorder- Mood Stabilizers
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
Patients receive brief electrical pulses to the brain that produce a seizure to treat serious psychological problems. Receive a muscle relaxant
Natural improvement without necessarily professional help or treatment.
The Placebo Effect
By instilling hope and the conviction that we can rise to life's challenges, virtually any credible treatment can be helpful in alleviating our demoralization.
Even when they don't approve, patients do not want to admit that they spent so much time, money, and energy without results. They want to find value in the treatment. Ignore or downplay their failures.
Regression to the Mean
Extremely depressed patients will become better no matter what after a first treatment. This tricks therapists into thinking a potentially useless treatment is working.
EX: Psych Test and always doing better the second time.
Retrospective rewriting of the past
Patients believe they improve even when they have not because they misremember their initial (pretreatment) level of adjustment as worse than it was.
Smith and Glass
Discrete Emotions Theory
Theory that humans experience a small number of distinct emotions.
Seven emotions believed by some theorists to be cross-culturally universal. Happiness, Disgust, SAdness, Fear, Surprise, Contempt, Fear, and Anger
our brain "creates" an enormous array of secondary emotions from the small primary number of emotions.
Ex: Alarm is a mixture of fear and surprise
theory proposing that emotions result from our interpretations of our bodily reactions to stimuli.
Ex: We're afraid because we run away.
Cognitive Theories of Emotion
Theory proposing that emotions are products of thinking
Theory proposing that an emotion-provoking event leads simultaneously to an emotion and to bodily reactions.
Ex: See a bear in woods triggers both fear and running at the same time. Triggers both an emotion and a bodily reaction.
Theory proposing that emotions are produced by an undifferentiated state of arousal along with an explanation of that arousal.
Ex: Come upon a bear, we become emotionally aroused (adrenaline) so we either fight or flee. Label arousal as fear.
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Theory that blood vessels in the face feed back temperature information in the brain, altering our experience of emotions. Facial features correspond with emotions.
Ex: Smiling while reading cartoons you are more likely to find them funnier
Phenomenon in which repeated exposure to a stimulus makes us more likely to feel favorably towards it. Familiarity breads comfort.
Broaden and Build Theory
Theory proposing that happiness predisposes us to think more openly. See the "big picture"
Lybomirsky's Breakdown of Determinants of Happiness
Ability to predict our own and other happiness
Belief that both our good and bad moods will last longer than they do.
Tendency for our moods to adapt to external circumstances.
Ex: Happiness "set point" that we always go back to. Adaption to positive life circumstances
Overestimate the intensity of a feeling will be
theory proposing that certain drives, like hunger, thirst, and sexual frustration motivate us to act in ways that minimize aversive states. Satisfaction of them is pleasurable.
Inverted U-shape relation between arousal on the one hand, and affect and performance on the other.
Underaroused- bored, fidgety, fantasize.
Overaroused- stressed out.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
A model proposing that we must satisfy physiological needs and needs for safety and security before progressing to more complex needs.
Steps of Maslow's Hierarchy
.5-1% population. Starvation, lose 25%-50% of body weight. Mostly women. Symptoms include low weight, loss of period, hair loss, heart problems, life-threatening electrolyte imbalances, and fragile bones.
Recurrent binge eating and then purging. Vomiting, diet pills, laxatives, and excessive exercise. 1-3% of the population. 95% women.
Sexual Desire and Determinants
Testosterone can enhance sexual interest. High levels of serotonin lower sex drive. Variations in a gene that produces DRD4 increase sex drive. 20% pop. have mutation 70% depress. Men desire sex more frequently and experience more sexual arousal.
Master's and Johnson
Pioneering investigation of sexual desire and the human sexual response. Used a lab to monitor couples. Lab included monitoring equipment, cameras recording changes in the vagina, and a bed.
The Four Phases of Sexual Response Cycle
phase in human sexual response in which people experience sexual pleasure and notice physiological changes associated with it.
phase in human sexual response marked by involuntary rhythmic contractions in the muscles of genitals in both men and women.
phase in human sexual response following orgasm, in which people report relaxation and a sense of well-being.
1940s and 1950s, Kinsey reported that homosexuality was far more widespread than believed. 10% of the sample was exclusively gay for at least 3 years between the ages of 16 and 35. About 4% of males reported exclusive homosexuality.
Genetic Influences of Sexual Orientation
Being exposed to excessive or not enough testosterone. Prenatal influences. Hypothalamus.
Environmental Influences of Sexual Orientation
Exotic becomes Erotic
Twin Studies show that there are environmental influences.
study of how people influence others' behavior, beliefs, and attitudes.
The Fundamental Attribution Error
tendency to overestimate the impact of dispositional influences on OTHER people's behaviors. We don't look at a persons situational influences and how they caused the behavior.
Ex: Boss fires a few loyal employees. Callous or under pressure?
tendency of people to alter their behavior as a result of group pressure
Study in which a group of confederates answer a question incorrectly and see if the subject conforms. 75% do even when they know the answer to be wrong.
studies in which an experimenter systematically manipulates the independent variable to observe its effects on the dependent variable.
The Autokinetic Effect
Results from tiny movements of the eye muscles that trick your brain into thinking that the dot is in motion. Your brain alters the perceived position of the external world. Explains UFO sitings.
Stanford Prison Study
Zimbardo wondered if dehumanizing conditions in prisons stemmed from peoples personalities or if they were roles that they were required to adopt. 2 weeks of volunteers to be either prisoners or guards. Ended study early because of the psych damage.
emphasis on group unanimity at the expense of critical thinking and sound decision making. Leads to overconfidence
Ex: Kennedy and the Bay of Pigs. Invaders were outnumbered and outgunned. Captured or killed. "How could I have been so stupid?"
tendency of group discussion to strengthen the dominant positions held by individual group members.
Ex: Students who were slightly unprejudiced became even less prejudice after discussing racial issues.
Adherence to instructions from those of higher authority.
Subjects give confederate (fake) electric shocks for every wrong answer they give. The instructor is in the room urging you on and the shocks can eventually reach XXX. Instructor says there will be no tissue damage but confederate screams. 62% XXX
Variations to Milgrim's Paradigm
Remote Feedback- 65%, Learner only pounds the wall
Voice Feedback- 62%
Proximity Condition- 40% Learner in same room
Touch Proximity- 30%
Telephone- 30%, instructor diff. room
Second Experimenter- 0%, instructors disagree
Teacher orders other subject- 93%
Behavior intended to help others.
a consequence of "psychological paralysis" versus apathy. Bystanders want to intervene but find themselves frozen. Danger in numbers.
error of assuming that no one in a group perceives things as we do. Do not recognize an emergency.
Ex: See a student slumped across a bench. Is he dead? Sleeping? Nobody else is reacting and assume that the situation is not an emergency.
Diffusion of Responsibility
reduction in feelings of personal responsibility in the presence of others. Do not feel the burden of responsibility for the consequences of NOT intervening.
Ex: Man has a heart attack with people around. Not ALL YOUR fault.
phenomenon whereby people become less productive in groups.
Ex: Group Projects
helping others for unselfish reasons.
5 Steps of Helping
3.) Taking Responsibility
Beliefs vs. Attitudes
A belief is a conclusion regarding factual evidence while an attitude is a belief that includes an emotional component.
Ex: Do you think the death penalty is effective? Belief
How do you feel about the death penalty? Attitude
Attitudes and Predicting Behaviors
Attitudes are not good predictors of behaviors.
Ex: Chinese discrimination. 90% said they would not serve them, 127 out of 128 did.