atom or group of atoms that has acquired a net electrical charge as a result of gaining or losing one or more electrons.
Positively charged ion
Negatively charged ion
Ions that are themselves made up of more than one atom or element
Contains high concentrations of dissolved calcium and magnesium ions
Contains few of these dissolved ions
Caused by a diet lacking in the proper mix of nutrients, even though the energy content of the food may be adequate.
Experienced when the daily caloric intake is insufficient to meet the metabolic needs of a person.
Properties of Fats
Greasy, slippery, soft, low melting, water insoluble, solids.
Properties of Oils
obtained from olives, corn or nuts. Exhibit many of the properties of animal-based fats, but in liquid form.
Edible fats and oils, and also triglycerides, cholesterol and other steroids.
Characterized by 2 structural features: (1) A long hydrocarbon chain generally containing an even number of carbon atoms [typically 12-24], (2) A carboxylic acid group [-COOH or -CO2H] at the end of the chain
Condensed formula CH3(CH2)16COOH
3 fatty acid molecules and 1 glycerol molecule. Belong to the lipid family, and is also known as a triester.
Fatty acids contain only C-to-C single bonds between the carbon atoms
A fatty acid that contains one or more C-to-C double bonds between carbon atoms
A fatty acid that contains more than one C-to-C double bond between carbon atoms
hydrogen gas, H2, is added to a double bond (C=C) and converts it to a single bond (C-C)
A lipid, falls into the class of compounds called steroids
Compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The best known dietary carbohydrates are sugars and starch.
Double sugar formed by 2 monoaccharides
Formed from many monoaccharides or disaccharides.
Polyamides or polypeptides, polymers made up of amino acid monomers.
General formula for an aminio acid includes 4 groups attached to a carbon atom (1) carboxylic acid group, (2) amine group, (3) hydrogen atom, (4) side chain designated as R.
Covalent bond that forms when the -COOH group of one amino acid reacts with the -NH2 group of another, thus joining the two amino acids.
Essential Amino Acids
Must be obtained from the diet because the body cannot synthesize them
Combining foods so total diet provides a complete supply of amino acids
Essential in the diet, small amounts. All organic molecules with a wide range of physiological functions. Generally not used as a source of energy, help break down macronutrients.
Essential for good health.
There is a net release of energy (energy from the metabolism of food)
Compound added to foods, drugs, and cosmetics to minimize the oxidation of unsaturated oils and fats that can cause rancidity, color loss, and flavor change.
Food preservation through this uses short wavelength, high energy gamma radiation to kill microorganisms. Such radiation s ionizing radiation.
46 compact structures of intertwined molecules of DNA
30,000 short pieces of DNA that code for the production of proteins, giving you particular inherited characteristics.
A special template written in a molecular code on a tightly coiled threat that carries all genetic information.
A combination of a base, phosphate group, and a deoxyribose sugar.
the nature of the base pairing required that the two strands be coiled in the shaped of this.
The process by which DNA copies are made. The original copy partially unwinds and complementary portions separate. These serve as template for synthesis of complementary strands. 2 DNA strands is the result.
The genetic code is written in groupings of three DNA bases.
Sequence of the amino acids that make up each protein. Hys-Pro-Gly-Ala
Localized arrangement of the backbone segments of a protein chain.
Refers to the three-dimensional structure of the entire polypeptide.
Genetically modified organism.
Collection of cells, identical to the original.
DNA that has incorporate DNA from another organism. Sometimes referred to as a Chimera.
Artificially created plants and animals that share the genes of another species. Increased shelf life, Resistance to pests or viruses, producing tolerances to specific herbicides.
A physical combination of two or more substances present in variable amounts
A fixed number of atoms held together by chemical bonds in a certain spatial arrangement.
Symbolically represets the type and number of each element present.
Characterized by the rearrangement of atoms when reactants are transformed into products.
Law of Conservation of Mass
Says that atoms on each side of the arrow must be equal.
Produced from other pollutants
Helps to indicate the certainty in a measurement and, later, a calculation.
Obtained by counting items or from a definition that compares two units in the same measuring system.
Everything else for which we must use Sig Fig rules.
Have a positive charge
Have a negative charge
Represent the name of an element. Consists of 1 or 2 letters, and starts with a capital letter
Atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers and have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
Represents a particular atom of an element, gives the mass number in the upper left corner and the atomic number in the lower left corner.
A measure of the amount total amount of ozone in a column of air.
A chemical substance that participates in a chemical reaction and influences its speed without undergoing permanent change.
Stable, not decomposed by UV radiation, would not catalyze the destruction of ozone...but, would build up in atmosphere and contribute to global warming.
Too flammable and have decreases boiling points so useless in refrigeration.
Gases capable of absorbing and reemitting infrared radiation to the atmosphere.
Global atmospheric lifetime or "turnover time"
Time required for a gas added to the atmosphere to be removed.
Ratio of electromagnetic radiation reflected relative to the amount of radiation incident on the surface.
Factors that affect the annual global mean surface temperature, natural and anthropogenic.
The capacity to do work or supply heat
The movement against a force
Energy that flows from a hotter to a colder object.
Determines the direction of the heat flow.
The amount of energy required to raise a 1-kg object 10 cm against the force of gravity.
1 cal is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 degree C.
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but may be transformed from one form to another.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
The entropy of the universe is increasing.
Randomness in position or energy level.
A chemical process in which a fuel combines rapidly with oxygen to release energy and form products.
When energy is released during the course of a chemical reaction.
Chemical or physical change that absorbs energy
The energy required to initiate the reaction.
The amount of energy that must be absorbed to break a chemical bond.
Heating starting material to a high temp
Catalysts are used at a lower temperature
Different compounds with the same chemical formula.
A homogeneous mixture of uniform composition
Substances capable of dissolving other substances-usually present in the greater amount.
Substances dissolved in a solvent-usually present in the lesser amount.
When water is the solvent
A measure of an atom's attraction for the elections it shares in a covalent bond
An electrostatic attraction between an atom bearing a partial positive charge in one molecule and an atom bearing a partial negative charge in a neighboring molecule.
Ions that they themselves made up of more than one atom or element.
Chemical messengers, produced by the body's endocrine glands
Proteins that act as biochemical catalysts, influencing the rates of chemical reactions.
The portion of a molecule that determines the biological effects of a drug.
The systematic creation of large numbers of small molecules in 'libraries' that can be rapidly screened in vitro for potential new drugs.
Molecules have four different groups attached to a central atom.
A chiral molecules and its non-superimposable mirror image are a special kind of isomer.
Chemically equivalent to the pioneer drug, but cannot be marketed until the patent protection on the pioneer drug has run out after 20 years.
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