The biological theory that, over time, changes occurring in plants and animals, mainly as a result of natural selection and genetic mutation, result in new species.
The biological family that includes humans and humanlike primates
the ability to walk upright on two legs; characteristic of hominids
an extinct human species. It evolved in Africa about 2 million years ago.
the change from food gathering to food production that occurred between ca. 8,000 and 2,000 B.C.E. Also known as the Neolithic Revolution.
the geological era since the end of the Great Ice Age about 11,000 years ago. (Pg.21)
the people who dominated southern Mesopotamia through the end of the third millennium B.C.E. They were responsible for the creation of many fundamental elements of Mesopotamian culture-such as irrigation technology, cuneiform, and religious conceptions-taken over by their Semitic successors.
Amorite ruler of Babylon. He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases.
A system of writing in which wedge-shaped symbols represented words or syllables. it originated in mesopotamia and was used initially for Sumerian and Akkadian but later was adapted to represent other languages of western Asia. Because so many symbols had to be learned, literacy was confined to a relatively small group of administrators and scribes.
the central figure in the ancient Egyptian state. Believed to be an earthly manifestation of the gods, he used his absolute power to maintain the safety and prosperity of egypt.
the capital of Old Kingdom Egypt, near the head of the Nile Delta. Early rulers were interred in the nearby pyramids.
capital city of Egypt and home of ruling dynasties during the Middle and New Kingdoms. Amon, patron deity of Thebes, became one of the chief gods of Egypt. Monarchs were buries across the river in the Valley of the kings.
the site of one of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millennium B.C.E. it was located on the north west frontier of the zone of cultivation (in modern pakistan) and may have been a center for the acquisition of raw materials, such as metals and precious stones, from Afghanistan and Iran.
largest of the cities of the Indus Valley civilization. it was centrally located in the extensive floodplain of the indus river in contemporary Pakistan. Little is known about the political institutions of Indus Valley Communities, but the large scale of construction at Mohenjo-Daro, the orderly grid of streets, and the standardization of building materials are evidence of central planning.
the dominant people in the earliest Chinese dynasty for which we have written records. Ancestor worship, divination by oracle bones, and the use of bronze vessels for ritual purposes were major elements and sharing culture.
the people and the dynasty that took over the dominant position in north China from the Shang and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. the zhou era, particularly the vigorous early period, was remembered in Chinese tradition as a time of prosperity and benevolent rule. In the later Zhou period, centralized control broke down, and warfare among many small states became frequent.
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, according to which it was the prerogative and to take away that power if the ruler failed to conduct himself justly and in the best interests of his subjects.
Mandate of Heaven
western name for the Chinese philosopher Kongzi. His doctrine of duty and public service had a great influence on subsequent Chinese thought and served as a code of conduct for government officials.
Chinese school of thought, originating in the Warring States Period with Laozi. Daoism offered an alternative to the Confucian emphasis on hierarchy and duty. Daoists believe that the world is always changing and is devoid of absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from the Dao, or path of nature.
the first Mesoamerican civilization. the olmec people of central mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction. The olmec had a great cultural influence on later mesoamerican societies, passing on artistic styles, religious imagery, sophisticated astronomical observation for the construction of calendars, and a ritual ball game.
a reed that grows along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. From it was produced a coarse, paperlike writing medium used by the Egyptians and many other peoples in the ancient mediterranean and middle east.
Third ruler of the Persian Empire. He crushed the widespread initial resistance to his rule and gave all major government posts to Persians rather than to Medes. He established a system of provinces and tribute, began construction of Persepolis, and expanded Persian control in the east and west.
the governor of a province in the Achamenid Persian Empire, often a relative of the king. He was responsible for protection of the province and for forwarding tribute to the central administration. Satraps in outlying provinces enjoyed considerable autonomy.
A complex of palaces, reception halls, and treasury buildings erected by the Persian king Darius I and Xerxes in the Persian homeland. It is believed that the New Year?s festival was celebrated here, as well as the coronations, weddings, and funerals of the Persian kings, who were buried in cliff-tombs nearby.
A religion originating in ancient Iran with the prophet Zoroaster. It centered on a single benevolent deity-Ahuramazda-who engaged in a twelve-thousand-year struggle with demonic forces before prevailing and restoring a pristine world. Emphasizing in truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature, the religion demanded that humans choose sides in the struggle between good and evil. those whose good conduct indicated their support for Ahuramazda would be rewarded in the afterlife. Others would be punished. the religion of the Achaemenid and Sasanid Persians.
the Greek term for a city-state, an urban center and the agricultural territory under its control. It was the characteristic form of political organization in southern and central Greece in the Archaic and Classical periods. of the hundreds of city-states in the Mediterranean and Black sea regions settled by greeks, some were oligarchic, others democratic, depending on the powers delegated to the Council and the assembly.
A heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx formation. Hoplite armies-militias composed of middle-and upper-class citizens supplying their own equipment-were for centuries superior to all other military forces.
Heir to the technique of historia-?investigation?-developed by Greeks in the late Archaic period. He came from a Greek community in Anatolia and traveled extensively, collecting information in western Asia and the Mediterranean lands. He traced the antecedants of and chronicled the Persian wars between the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, thus originating the Western tradition of historical writing.
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt through Darius? punitive expedition that failed at Marathon and the defeat of Xerxes massive invasion of Greece by the Spartan-led Hellenic League. This first major setback for Persian arms launched the greeks into their period of greatest cultural productivity. Heredotus chronicled these events in the first history in the western tradition.
A protracted and costly conflict between the Athenian and Spartan alliance systems that convulsed most of the Greek world. The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism. Possession of a naval empire allowed Athens to fight a war of attrition. Ultimately, Sparta prevailed because of Athenian errors and Persian financial support.
city on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt founded by Alexander. It became the capital of the Hellenistic kingdom of the Ptolemies. it contained the famous Library and the Museum- a center for leading scientific and literary figures. its merchants engaged in trade with areas bordering the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean.
site of a fortified palace complex in southern greece that controlled a Late Bronze age kingdom. In Home's epic poems Mycenae was the base of King Agamemnon, who commanded the Greeks besieging Troy. Contemporary archaeologists call the complex Greek society of the second millennium B.C.E. "Mycenaean"
city located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E.
a people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze age. With wealth from the trade in metals and military power based on chariot forces, the Hittites vied with new kingdom egypt for control of Syria-Palestine before falling to unidentified attackers.
semitic-speaking Canaanites living on the coast of modern Lebanon and Syria in the first millennium. From major cities such as Tyre and Sidon, Phoenician merchants and sailors explored the Mediterranean, engaged in widespread commerce, and founded Carthage and other colonies in the western Mediterranean.
Founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Between 550 and 530 B.C.E. ge cibquered Nedua, Lydia, and Babylon. Revered in the traditions of both Iran and the subject peoples, he employed Persians and Medes in his administration and respected the institutions and beliefs and subject peoples.
a term used to characterize Roman government in the first three centuries C.E., based on the ambiguous title princeps (?first citizen?) adopted by Augustus to conceal his military dictatorship.
Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate. After defeating all rivals, between 31 B.C.E. and 14 C.E. he laid the groundwork for several centuries of stability and prosperity in the Roman Empire.
in ancient Italy, prosperous landowners second in wealth and status to the senatorial aristocracy. The Roman emperors allied with this group to counterbalance the influence of the old aristocracy and used the equites to staff the imperial civil service.
literally ?Roman peace,? it connotated the stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E. The movement of people and trade goods along Roman roads and safe seas allowed for the spread of cultural practices, technologies, and religious ideas.
Roman emperor. After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion.
A people and state in the Wei Valley of eastern China that conquered rival states and created the first Chinese empire. the qin ruler, Shi Huangdi, standardized many features of chinese society and ruthlessly marshaled subjects for military and construction projects, engendering hostility that led to the fall of his dynasty shortly after his death. The Qin framework was largely taken over by the succeeding Han Empire.
founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese empire. He is remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states, standardization of practices, and forcible organization of labor for military and engineering tasks. his tomb, with its army of life-size terracotta soldiers, has been partially excavated.
A term used to designate the ethnic Chinese people who originated in the Yellow River Valley and spread throughout regions of China suitable for agriculture and the dynasty of emperors who ruled from 202 B.C.E. to 220 C.E.
a confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwest frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off these ?barbarians? as they called them, and finally succeeded in dispersing the Xiongnu in the first century C.E.
chief astrologer for the Han dynasty emperor Wu. He compsed a monumental history of China from its legendary origins to his own time and is regarded as the Chinese ?father of history.?
early indian sacred "knowledge"- the literal meaning of the term-long preserved and communicated orally by Brahmin priests and eventually written down. These religious texts, including the thousand poetic hymns to various deities contained in the Rig Veda, are our main source of information about the Vedic period.
The four major social divisions: -the Brahmin Priest class -the Kshatriya warrior/administrator class -the Vaishya merchant/farmer class -the shudra laborer class. *generally interact with other members of their groups
Varna (the caste system)
in indian tradition, the residue of deeds performed in the past and present lives that adheres to a "spirit" and determines what form it will assume in the next life cycle. the doctrines of karma and reincarnation were used by the elite in ancient india to encourage people to accept their social position and do their duty.
The hindu concept of the spirit's "liberation" from the endless cycle of rebirths. there are various avenues-such as physical discipline, meditation, and acts of devotion to the gods- by which the spirit can distance itself from desire for the things of this world and be merged with the divine force that animates the universe.
an indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced his wealth and social position. After becoming "enlightened" he enunciated the principles of Buddhism. This doctrine evolved and spread throughout India and to Southeast, east, and central asia.
third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India. He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing.
a powerful indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessor, on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley. it controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture.
a general term for a wide variety of beliefs and ritual practices that have developed in the Indian subcontinent since antiquity. hinduism has roots in ancient Vedic, Buddhist, and south Indian religious concepts and practices. It spread along the trade routes to Southeast Asia.
"Great vehicle" branch of Buddhism followed in China, Japan, and Central Asia. The focus is on reverence for Buddha and for bodhisattvas, enlightened persons who have postponed nirvana to help others attain enlightenment.
the first state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent. it was founded by Chandragupta Maurya. From its capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley it grew wealthy from taxes on agriculture, iron mining, and control of trade routes.
"Way of the Elders" branch of Buddhism, followed in Sri Lanka and much of Southeast Asia. Theravada remains close to the original principles set forth by the Buddha; it downplays the importance of gods and emphasizes austerity and the individual's search for enlightenment.
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