is a group of components that interact to achieve some purpose.
a group of components that interact to produce information.
5 Component framework
Computer hardware, computer software, data, procedures, and people.
MIS- Management Information Systems
is the development and use of information systems that help business achieve their goals and objectives. 1. development and use, 2. information systems, 3. buisness goals and objectives.
refers to methods, inventions, standards, and products that produce information.
the number of transistors per square inch on an integrated chip doubles every 18 months.
is a network of activities, resources, facilities, and information that interact to achieve some business function. aka business systems
transform resources and information of one type into resources and information of another type.
are items of value.
are structures used within the business process.
is knowledge derived from data, where data is defined as recorded facts or figures.
is a self-describing collection of integrated records. Byte, character of data, is grouped into columns. Columns, also called fields, are grouped into rows, which are also called records. A group of similar rows/records is a table or file.
is a column or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a table.
such columns are keys, but they are keys of a different table than the one in which they reside.
databases that carry their data in the form of tables and that represent relationships using the foreign keys
are data that describe data.
database management system
is a program used to create, process, and administer a database. DB2 from IBM, Access and SQL from Microsoft, and Oracle from Oracle corp.
Structured Query Language
is an international standard language for processing a database.
is a collection of forms, reports, queries, and application programs that process a database.
are used to read, insert, modify, and delete data.
show data in a structured context.
where one would type in the keyword for which one is looking for and it will show the results of the query.
to prevent this problem, some type of locking must be used to coordinate the activities of users who know nothing about one another.
business management process BPM
is the systematic process of creating, assessing, and altering business processes. 4 stages, create, implement, assess, and model.
involve activities among several, or even many, business departments. ex: customer relationship mgt. (CRM) process, which involves the activities of various departments, such as sales, marketing, operations, and customer support.
Object Management Group, (OMG)
a software-industry standards organization that created a standard set of terms and graphical notations for documenting business processes.
Business Process Modeling Notation, (BPMN)
set of symbols, circle=start, bold circle=end, rectangle=activity (+ indicates subprocess defined), diamond=decision or gateway, page=data, ----> message flow, _____>process flow,----[=annotation
swim lane layout
can be used to simplify process diagrams and to draw attention to interactions among components of the diagram.
service oriented architecture, SOA
information systems developers studied best-of-practice techniques and from these developed a design philosophy. SOA was originally used to design interacting computer programs.
is a repeatable task that a business needs to perform.
when the logic for some service is isolated
XML, eXtensible Markup Language
is used to model and structure data. XML can provide structure to that data so that the Process Credit Order and Authorize Credit services can use the data without confusion.
XML includes tags
which are metadata that name and identify data items. Tags are enclosed in matching chevrons <>/
a set of XML tags and data
is an XML document whose content describes the structure of other XML documents.
is a protocol for exchanging messages encoded in XML.
Web Services Description Language (WSDL)
To expose a service or services to the world, the designer of the service creates a WSDL document that describes the particular features that the service provides and the data that need to be sent or that will be returned from the service.
Purpose of a database
to keep track of things typically involving more than one theme
Contents of a Database
1. hierarchy of data elements, byte>column>row>file:DB terms, byte>field>record>table. 2. relationship among records. 3.metadata
Resources, Events, and Agents
A resource is something that is of value to a company and its balance goes up and down as it is purchased from suppliers what is being purchased from the suppliers and then used up or sold. PRODUCT, the enity which is a resource.
are the activities that occur within the business process. in 342 sales process what events are occuring? customers are placing orders and a sale occurs when the product is shipped out. 2 more entities, Order and Sale=events
people who are involved in the business process. in 342 sales process who are the agents.? Suppliers, customers, employees, and shippers.= agents.
Conceptual Model Overview
1. identify the entities 2. all relationships and relationship types b/w pairs of entities 3. all of the attributes for each entity must be identified. *at least one attribute must be used to uniquely identify each row of data in an entity.
Design or Logical Model
the design of the tables based on the entities identified and the relationships that exist b/w the pairs of entities. *RULE- for every entity identified there will be a table defined in the physical database.
One-to One: Order to Sale
For each order in the order table there is only one sale. Since the order occurs before the sale, take the primary key and add it to the attributes of product.
One-to-many: Category to product
For each item in the product table there is one category so take the primary key and add it to the attributes of product.
Many-to-many: Product to Order
For each order in the order table there can be many products and each product can be on many orders.
To implement linking of any 1 to 1 relationship
post the primary key of one entity as a field in the table of the other entity. In the case of relationships between two event entities, post the primary key field of the second event that occurs first as an extra field in the table of the second event.
to implement linking of any 1 to many
post the primary key of the 1 entity as a field in the table of the many entity.
to implement linking of any Many to Many relationship
create a new table that contains the primary key fields of both entities.
True or False: Similar to Excel, if you are comparing tables of data that exist in two different Access databases, you can open both databases?
False, Access automatically closes the current database you have open if you try to open a second database.
What do the letters RDBMS stand for?
Relational Database Management System
What is the difference between information and data?
Data by itself does not automatically produce information. This is why many business managers use access, a versatile database tool that can transform data into actionalble information.
True or False: One of the reasons why so many businesses use Access is because it is always accurate?
False: Access is not automatically accurate and does not guarantee perfect results. The accuracy of the information produced by Access depends greatly on how it is used.
In a database, the actual data is stored in_______.
To change the default file format of an Access database when it is created, you must click the ________ ________ button in the _________ menu.
Access Options button in the File Menu.
True or False: After a database is created in a specific file format, it cannot be changed to an alternate file format?
Which 3 objectives of an Access database are most commonly used by business managers?
1. reviewing some sort of report that was created using data from the tables of a database. 2. might want to know whether the overall value of the portfolio has been increasing or decreasing over the past 6 weeks. 3. review the number of stocks for which the price has been decrease/increased over the past 6 weeks.
The ___________ Object of an Access database is used for selecting specific sets of data from a table.
Reports Object, one of 5. tables, queries, reports, forms, macros, and modules.
Why would business owner of a larger corp prefer to use tables that are maintained on the firm's external RDBMS instead of using Access to create tables?
Business managers working in large companies usually use RDBMS for linking to tables that are maintained by their firms' IT departments.
Explain the purpose of data types.
1. defines what kind of data can be entered into a field, such as numbers, dates, and text. 2. controls the amount of data or the storage capacity for each cell in a field. 3. to ensure data consistency among all cells of a field
If a TEXT data has a field size setting of 6, how many digits of a number can you type into that field?
All 6 digits, can hold up to 255 bytes.
True or False: The number 65750 can be entered into a field that has a NUMBER data type and a field size set to INTEGER.
False: the field size is set to SINGLE, not INTEGER
T/F: Numeric values can be typed into a field that is defined with a TEXT data type. However, words or letters cannot be typed into a field that is defined with a NUMBER data type.
What data type has the highest storage capacity for words?
Memo; Up to 65, 535 characters.
Explain the purpose of entity integrity?
ensures the integrity of the data that is entered into an Access table, and it forces critical information to be entered into the table.
If the primary key is set on one field in a table, then there can be no_________values entered into that field.
Before setting the primary key for a table, you must determine what ___________ make each record____________.
Fields make each record Unique.
T/F: Indexing is used to sort the data in a table when it is viewed in DATASHEET VIEW.
False: Design view
Indexing makes ______________ for data more efficient.
Search and Extract
T/F: Numbers can be formatted in an Access table by activating a cell or field and selecting one of the formatting icons in the Home tab of the Ribbon.
What do you need to check before pasting data from an Excel spreadsheet into an Access table?
make sure the sequence of the columns in the Excel spreadsheet is identical to the sequence of the fields in the Access table.
What option could you use to temporarily remove records from an Access table?
The _________ ___________ ____________ will appear when changing the format or decimal places of a field.
Property Update Option
T/F: To change the sequence of a field, simply click and drag on the field name when a table is in Datasheet View.
True, you can also do it in Design View
T/F: Fields can be inserted in either the Design View or Datasheet View of an access table.
How do you delete a field from an Access table when it is in the Datasheet View?
1. Open a table in Datasheet View 2. Activate a field by clicking the field name or activate one cell in the field to be deleted. 3. Click the Delete icon in the Datasheet tab on the ribbon.
How do you delete a record from Access data table?
1. Open a table in Datasheet View 2. Activate the records to be deleted by clicking and dragging in the box to the left of the records. 3. Press the delete key on the keyboard or click the Delete Icon in the Home tab on the Ribbon.
T/F: If you delete a row or field from an Access table, you can simply click the UNDO icon to bring them back even after clicking Yes on the warning?
False, once deleted. its gone
When creating an Access table by importing data from an Excel spreadsheet, you must check to make sure the field names are valid. What is a valid name?
T/F: After a table is created through linking, Access will always keep track of the source file even if it is moved to another location on your computer?
False: once changed you won't be able to find it
How will Access define data type if you are importing a column of data from an Excel spreadsheet that is mixed with words and numbers?
Will change it to text data type
Relationship between customers and orders
ONE on the customer side and MANY on the orders side.
A customer can place many orders
Relationship between suppliers and products
ONE on the supplier side and MANY on the product side
1 supplier can supply many different products
Relationship between employees and orders
ONE on the employee side and MANY on the order side
1 employee can make many orders
Relationship between products and orders
MANY to MANY
there can be many products involved in many orders
Relationship between sales and orders
ONE to ONE, **a sale occurs at the time of shipment
only 1 sale happens with every 1 order
Relationship between categories and products
ONE to MANY
max number of products that can belong to any one category? MANY
The entities in the conceptual model become relations in the logical model. The relations will become tables in the physical database.
The attributes in the conceptual model become columns in the logical model and fields in the physical database. The rows in the logical model become records in the physical database.
3 fields, one record for each category.
12 fields, 1 record for each customer. customer data=physical address
9 fields, **doesn't include cost, but only suggested retail price
2 posted fields, Supplier ID and Category ID, easier linking b/w the products table and the supplier and the products table and the category table
12 fields, asks for company name and contact person. 2 different fields
5 fields, 2 posted fields, Customer ID and Employee ID..enable easier linking between the orders table and the customers and the employees tables
4 fields, Created to enable the computer to process data related to the Many to Many entity relationship
Each record in the orderlines table is uniquely identified by the combination of the order id and the product id fields
13 fields, 4 posted fields-customer Id, Employee ID, Shipper ID, and ORder ID
5 fields, created to enable the computer to process data related to the MANY to MANY entity relationship discussed earlier.
Each record in the salelines table is uniquely identified by the combination of the sales invoice id and product Id fields
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