sets the tone and clarifies the terms and conditions under which management and the union will function over a specific period.
Union Security Clause
stipulates that employees who reap union benefits either officially join or at least pay dues to the union.
Closed shop agreement
specifies that workers had to be members of a union before being hired for a job.
Union shop agreement
workers do not have to be members of a union to be hired but must agree to join within a prescribed period.
Agency shop agreement
says that employers may hire nonunion workers; employees are not required to join the union but must pay a union fee.
gives workers the right under an open shop, to join or not join a union if it is present.
Open shop agreement
agreement in right-to-work states that gives workers the option to join or not join a union, if one exists in their workplace.
a charge by employees that management is not abiding by or fulfilling the terms of the negotiated labor-management agreement as they perceive it.
union officials who work permanently in an organization and represent employee interests on a daily basis.
the range of options between the initial and final offer that each party will consider before negotiations dissolve or reach an impasse.
the use of a third party (a mediator) to resolve problems
an agreement to bring an impartial third party (a single arbitrator or a panel of arbitrators) to render a binding decision in a labor dispute.
when workers collectively refuse to go to work.
when workers in a critical industry return to their jobs while the union and management continue negotiations.
when a union encourages both its members and the general public, not to buy products of a firm involved in a labor dispute.
an attempt by labor to convince others to stop doing business with a firm that is the subject of a primary boycott.
an attempt by management to put pressure on unions by temporarily closing the business.
a court order directing someone to do something or to refrain from doing something
workers hired to do the jobs of striking workers until the labor dispute is resolved.
gains from labor negotiations are given back to management to help employers remain competitive and thereby save jobs.
the personal satisfaction you feel when you perform well and complete goals.
something given to you by someone else as recognition for good work; extrinsic rewards include play increases, praise, and promotions.
studying workers to find the most efficient ways of doing things and then teaching people those techniques.
studies, begun by Fredrick Taylor, of which tasks must be performed to complete a job and the time needed to do each task.
Principle of motion economy
theory developed by Frank and Lillian Gillbreth that every job can be broken down into a series of elementary motions.
the tendency for people to behave differently when they know they are being studied.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
theory of motivation based on unmet human needs from basic physiological needs to safety, social, and esteem needs to self-actualization needs. Physiological needs: basic survival needs, such as the need for food, water and shelter.
Safety needs: need to feel secure at work and at home. Social needs: need to feel loved, accepted, and part of the group. Esteem needs: need for recognition and acknowledgement from others, as well as self-respect and a sense of status or importance. Self-actualization
job factors that cause employees to be productive and that give them satisfaction.
job factors that can cause dissatisfaction if missing but that do not necessarily motivate employees if necessary.
the idea that setting ambitious but attainable goals can motivate workers and improve performance
management by objectives (MBO)
a system of goal setting and implementation; it involves a cycle of discussion, review, and evaluation of objectives among employees.
Victor Vroom's theory that the amount of effort employees exert on a specific task depends on their expectations of the outcome.
says positive and negative reinforcers motivate a person to behave in certain ways.
looks at how employee's perceptions of fairness affect their willingness to perform.
a motivational strategy that emphasizes motivating the worker through the job itself.
combines a series of tasks into one challenging and interesting assignment.
makes work more interesting and motivating by moving employees from one job to another.
is the process used to accomplish organizational goals through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling people and other organizational resources.
a management function that includes anticipating trends and determining the best strategies and tactics to achieve organizational goals and objectives.
a management function that includes designing the structure of the organization and creating conditions and systems in which everyone and everything works together to achieve the organization's goals & objectives.
creating a vision for the organization and guiding, training, coaching, and motivating others to work effectively to achieve the organization's goals and objectives.
establishes clear standards to determine whether an organization is progressing toward its goals and objectives, rewarding people for doing a good job, and taking corrective action if they are not.
an encompassing explanation of why the organization exists and where it's trying to head.
an outline of the fundamental purposes of an organization.
the broad, long-term accomplishments an organization wishes to attain.
specific, short-term statements detailing how to achieve the organization's goals.
a planning tool used to analyze an organization's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
is done by top management and determines the major goals of the organization and the policies, procedures, strategies, and resources it will need to achieve them.
the process of developing detailed, short-term statements about what is to be done, who is to do it, and how.
the process of setting work standards and schedules necessary to implement the company's tactical objectives.
the process of preparing alternative courses of action the firm can use if its primary plans don't work out.
choosing among two or more alternatives.
the process of solving everyday problems that occur. Problem solving is less formal than decision making and usually calls for quicker action.
coming up with as many solutions to a problem as possible in a short period of time with no censoring of ideas.
listing all the pluses for a solution in one column, all the minuses in another, and the implications in a third column.
a visual device that shows relationships among people and divides the organization's work; it shows who reports to whom.
the highest level, consists of the president and other key company executives who develop strategic plans.
includes general managers, division managers, and branch and plant managers (in colleges, deans and department heads) who are responsible for tactical planning and controlling.
managers who are directly responsible for supervising workers and evaluating their daily performance.
skills that involve the ability to perform tasks in a specific discipline or department.
Human relation skills
skills that involve communication and motivation; they enable managers to work through and with people.
skills that involve the ability to picture the organization as a whole and the relationship among its various parts.
a management function that includes hiring, motivating, and retaining the best people available to accomplish the company's objectives.
the presentation of a company's facts and figures in a way that is clear and apparent to all stakeholders.
leadership style that involves making managerial decisions without consulting others.
Participative (democratic) leadership
leadership style that consists of managers and employees working together to make decisions.
involves managers setting objectives and employees being relatively free to do whatever it takes to accomplish those objectives.
giving workers the education and tools they need to make decisions.
finding the right information, keeping the information in a readily accessible place, and making the information known to everyone in the firm.
dealers, who buy products to sell to others, and ultimate customers (or end users), who buy products for their own personal use.
individuals and units within the firm that receive services from other individuals or units.
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