a nation?s basic law. It creates political institutions, allocates power within government and often provides guarantees to citizens. Can be written or unwritten
? Declaration of Independence
approved by reps of American colonies in 1776 that stated their complaints and grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.
? John Locke
wrote the Second Treatise of Civil Government (1689),
? natural rights
rights inherent in human beings not dependent on government
? consent of governed
government derives its authority by sanction of people
? Limited government
restrictions should be placed on government to protect the natural rights of citizens. Preservation of property is purpose of government
? Articles of Confederation
first constitution of USA 1777-1781, consisted of national legislature. But most power given to state legislatures.
? Shays? Rebellion
a series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by capt Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings
? Thomas Hobbes
Leviathan 1651 ? mans natural state was war and strong absolute ruler was necessary
parties or interest groups, Madison?s arose from unequal distribution of property or wealth
? New Jersey Plan
William Paterson- states equal in Congress
? VA plan
Edmund Randolph ? population based congress
? Connecticut Compromise
Roger Sherman And William Johnson, create house ? population, and senate ? 2 each, bicameral legislature
? Writ of Habeas Corpus
court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody
a government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws
who supported the Constitution
? Anti Federalists
those who opposed the Constitution
? Federalist Papers
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison under the name Publius to defend the constitution in detail
? Bill of Rights
first 10 amendments, drafted in response to some Anti Fed concerns
separation of powers
a feature of the constitution that requires each of the three branches of government - executive, legislative, and judicial - to be relatively independent of the others so that one cannot control the others. Power is shared among these three institutions
checks and balances
features of the constitution that limit government's power by requiring that power be balanced among the different governmental institutions. these institutions continually constrain one another's activities.
equal rights amendment
a constitutional amendment passed by congress in 1972 stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the united states or by any state on account of sex." the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislatures.
marbury v. madision
the 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the supreme court to determine the meaning of the US contsitution. the decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of congress, in this case the Judiciary Act of 1789.
The power of the courts to determine whether acts of congress and, by implication, the executive are in in accord with the US constitution. judicial review was established by john Marshall and his associated in Marbury v Madison.
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