Gas exchange or respiration takes place at a respiratory surface, a boundary between the external environment and the interior of the body.
A respiratory epithelium is the area across which gas diffusion occurs. These surfaces depend on rapid diffusion and must consist of moist, living cells (gases dissolve in water). Epithelial cells moisten and protect the airway.
A chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by the decreased elasticity of lung tissue.
Surgical procedures on the neck to open a direct airway through an incision in the trachea.
A collapsed lung caused by accumulation of air or gas in the pleural cavity (an air bubble causes 'peeling' away from membrane).
Widespread, hypersensitive inflammatory response to irritants.
(In lecture, "surfactant cells)
Cells lining the airways are constantly secreting mucus, which traps foreign particles in the air. The mucus is then moved towards the throat, by cilia, where it is swallowed and eliminated.
Transport of molecules from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration by random molecular motion. The result of diffusion is a gradual mixing of material.
The lungs are attached to the interior of the body wall by surface tension. Pneumothorax occurs if the surface tension is broken.
Tiny particles of solid or liquid matter suspended in a gas.
The trapping and elimination of air particulates before they reach lung tissue.
'Dust cells' are another name the macrophages that reside on respiratory surfaces and clean off foreign particles such as dust and microorganisms.
During inhalation, the diaphragm relaxes, enlarging the thoracic cavity, which creates suction that draws air into the lungs. When the diaphragm relaxes, air is exhaled by elastic recoil of the lung and surrounding tissues.
The diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax; the elasticity of the lungs returns them to their initial volume. The air pressure in the lungs increases to become greater than the outside air pressure, pushing air out.
An equation describing diffusion in relation to surface area. It determines that respiratory surfaces must have a large surface area, a thin permeable surface, and a moist exchange surface for optimal diffusion.
Gases enter and leave cells through pressure gradients. The primary force applied in the respiratory tract is supplied by atmospheric pressure.
Glucose + oxygen --> water + carbon dioxide + ATP
The maximum volume of air that a person can exhale after maximum inhalation.
The body cavity that surrounds the lungs.
The lungs are made of spongy, elastic tissue and are located in the thoracic cavity.
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