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music final notes
music final notes
University of Washington - Seattle Campus
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Music: An Appreciation, 6th Brief Edition
Complete abandonment of tonality or key centeredness.
Schoenberg's 12-tone technique is an example.
Being in key and having a central key called the tonic key.
Emotional Life and the modern person
Stressed intense subjective emotion
Alban Berg ==> Wozzeck
Harsh dissonance and fragmentation
Their works avoid tonality and traditional chord progressions.
The technique of half-speaking, half singing developed by Schoenberg.
Used in Wozzak by Berg
Two chords on top of each other to create fresh harmonies.
Two or more contrasting independent rhythms at the same time.
Different meters at different times.
It often has ostinato
Several rhythmic units piled on the top of another.
Content of the poem no longer have literal meaning but represent something larger than the poem.
The Afternoon of faun by Stephane Mallarme
Debussy's prelude to the Afternoon of Faun
Expression rather than description
Twelve tone technique/serialism
It gives equal prominence to each of the 12 chromatic tones.
Schoeberg made it.
Debussy and Stravinskey's compositional techniques.
Includes a percussion section: five timpano, tuned antique cymbals, and gongsl and guiro
Musical style that stresses atmosphere, Tone color, and fluidity.
Typical of Debussy.
The Second Viennese School
Aleatory (Chance) Music
Music in which one or more of the compositional elements have been left to chance.
John Cage used it.
Putting objects inside the piano to transfer the timber of the music.
John Cage started it in Seattle.
It stresses clean shapes, clear colors, and undecorated lines.
It features mostly consonant sounds, regular pulse, and short melodies made up of very simple musical elements.
Glass, Steve Reich, and John Adams (all Americans)
Often uses Phasing
When two or more instrumentalists or singers perform the same musical pattern at different intervals of time.
Coined by Pierre Schaeffer
Music prepared from recorded sounds either natural or human-made.
General term for electronic
Five-tone produced by the 5 black keys on the keyboard.
Unusual and tonally vague scale made up of six different notes each a whole step away from the next.
Creates a blurred, indistinct effect.
Used in the Rite of Spring by Stravinkey
Did not last long
Both radical and conservative.
Theatre des Champs-Elysees
Igor Stravainsky performed The Rite of Spring in here in Paris 1913.
The Unanswered question
What is the meaning of life?
Three layers of styles continue on w/o ever connecting.
In the Unanswered question
chord made up of tones only a half step or a whole step apart.
Made by fisting the keyboard.
Approach to pitch organization using two keys at one time
"Chords with No names"
Debussy's response to his teacher
Inversion and Retrograde
Musical technique that involves distributing a musical line or melody to several instruments, rather than just one.
Adds timber and texture.
Schoenberg coined the term.
Ives used it in the unanswered question
Appalachian Spring: Theme and Variations on "Simple Gift"
A ballet score composed by Aaron Copland
Any meter whose measures can not be divided into equal beats.
The study of non-western music and music in society.
Do-Re-Mi etc. Scale -major and minor tonalities.
From Mass for the Dead: Berlioz/Symphonie fantastique.
Aaron Copland (1900-1990)
His works are usually strongly tonal.
He uses techniques such as polychords, polyrhthm, changing meters, and percussive orchestration.
He composed The Appalachian Spring
Please, Please Me
Producer was George Martin.
It begins with instrumental introduction and has a melodic contour.
Acoustic guitar plays melodic theme.
Joined by Eastern Indian Sitar playing theme in unison
Tomorrow Never Knows
Noise is becoming of interest.
ABAA or AABA or just AAABAAAA
Lani Delama praying on the top of the mountains.
Produced Boris Godonoc, an opera by modest Mussorgski
He used Piano Phasing
A returning instrumental passage. A repeating musical idea that unifies an extended work.
common form of the 1st and last movement of Baroque concerti. Alternating sections of solo (or soloists) and tutti (full orchestra) passages.
provides the foundation of bass line and chords that function as support for melodic content. As little as one instrument.
Bass part of the Baroque accompaniment with figures (numbers) indicating the chords to be played.
"Heightened Speech". To push the plot of the libretto. Each syllable gets one note.
Solo voice. The showcase for vocal ability. Often done in recitatives. It exists in emotional time revealing the inner feelings of a character.
Queen of Carthage. She has lost her beloved. She sings her recitative. She uses word painting to show the darkness with a short melisma.
The lover of Dido who leaves her to fulfill his destiny.
Composition for several movements, usually written for chorus, one or more vocal soloists and instrumental ensemble.
Large scale composition for chorus, vocal soloists, and orchestra, usually to a narrative text, but w/o acting, scenery, or costumes. Often based on Biblical stories.
Single movement consisting of three main sections:
Exposition, where the themes are presented.
Development, themes are treated in new ways.
Recapitulation, themes return.
Mozart, symp #40 in G minor 1st movement
Beethoven, symp # 5 in C minor, 1st movement.
Minuet & Trio
Derived from Dance in three parts:
Minuet (a), trio (b), minuet (a)
Often used in the 3rd movement.
Suicide letter from Beethoven to his brother.
The 9th (choral) Symphony
The finale for the combined forces of orchestra and choir by Beethoven.
The 6th Symphony (Pastoral)
Beethoven's program music.
It later inspired Berlioz to write Symphony Fantastique.
He wrote comic style Italian operas.
He wrote Don Giovanni.
Opera in German and Italian.
Most important form of Art Song -- A miniaturized opera by Schbert.
Vocal form in which the same music is repeated for each stanza of a poem
Vocal form in which there is new music for each stanza of a poem.
Unaccompanied section of virtuoso display for the soloist in a concerto.
Element of musical notation indicating that the note should be sustained for longer than its note value would indicate.
Bach often used it.
Slight holding back or pressing forward of tempo to intensify the expression of the music, often used in the Romantic period.
A single melody used in several movements of a long work to represent a recurring idea.
Related to a story, idea, or scene, in which each movement usually has a descriptive title.
An attempt to work out dramatic ides in the framework of a Beethoven symphony.
This work was inspired by the The 6th symphony of Beethoven.
Gives strength to the march. The tube became its substitute.
La donna e Mobile
Orchestration: One big guitar.
Tristan und Isolde
Begins in but never resolves tonal instability.
It pointed the way towards the harmonic language.
The ring Cycle
A tale of Germanic gods and demigods, all greedy for a gold ring forged by the Nibelungs.
Many leitmotifs are used.
Wagner's means for large-scale organization.
The repetition of motivic ideas.
Short musical idea associated with a person or object or thought
Occurring melodic ideas for swords, fires, etc...
Symphony from the New World
Themes reflect African-American musical traditions.
Pentatonic scales (five note scales)
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