- Basic theories, principles and ideas of IT, organizations, people, and information that underpin technology and its uses
- Raw material for understanding new information technology and its uses as they evolve
- The "how and why" that provide insight to opportunities and limitations
Define the Social Construction of Technology
- A theory describing how an integrated sociotechnical system is brought into existence.
A DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF the Social Construction of Technology.
- The socio-technical is not to be treated merely as a combination of social and technical factors. It is sui generis (their own kind). Instead of technical artifacts, our unit of analysis is now the "sociotechnical ensemble." ... Society is not determined by technology, nor is technology determined by society. Both emerge as two sides of the sociotechnical coin during the construction process of artifacts, facts, and relevant social groups.
Define: Social Informatics
- A body of research that examines the social aspects of computerization.
- "The interdisciplinary study of the design, uses and consequences of information technologies that takes into account their interaction with institutional and cultural contexts."
Intellectual Capabilities Existing in Programs (Not a question, just information)
- Apply information technology to complex and sustained situations in the workplace
- Higher-level thinking in the context of information technology
- Thinking abstractly about information and its manipulation
- Sustained reasoning and debate
- Analyze, synthesize, critique, reflect
- Manage complexity; test a solution
- Manage problems in faulty solutions
- organize and navigate information structures
- Evaluate information
- Collaborate and communicate
- Anticipate changing technologies
Describe the (6) levels of Bloom's Taxonomy of Thinking (Revised) *THINK OF THE PYRAMID MODEL*
- From top of pyramid to bottom in this order.
5. Understand - Describe, Explain
6. Knowledge - Remember
What are the functions that Information Technology consist of? (6)
- Data management
- Database design and management
- Software design
- Management information systems
- Systems management
Define: Information Technology
- Use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process and transmit and retrieve information, securely.
What are the Three Views of IT?
- Economies of scale IT as a Utility
- Support for business programs IT as Dependent
- Meet changes in the marketplace IT as Enabling Environment
How does Morville define "Findability"?
- Quality of being locatable or navigable. Requires definition, distinction, difference. In digital world, this means tags/words. The degree to which a system (or environment) supports navigation and retrieval.
Why does Morville suggest information literacy is important?
- Qualities to allow when information is needed and the ability to locate, evaluate and use it.
- Helps individuals succeed as USERS and PRODUCERS
- Provides workers with knowledge in an information economy
- Provides skills for youth and children
- Has business value.
Describe the Digital Information Fluency Model (Circular Model) *HARD TO EXPLAIN THROUGH TEXT*
- Starts with "What Information am i looking for?" --> "Where will i find the information?" --> "How will i get there?" --> "How good is the information?" --> This leads either back to the beginning "What information am i looking for" OR --> "How will i ethically use the information?"
Define: The (7) Concepts of Cognitive Authority (What are the factors that make a person this?)
- Cognitive Authority refers to a person or information from a person that exhibits the following:
3. Reliable reputation
4. Intrinsic plausibility of claims
5. Repeated plausibility
7. Charismatic authority
True or False: The Concept of Cognitive Authority is related to Credibility
- TRUE - It is related.
- This is usually understood to be a person or information or knowledge object that propels us to take action.
Briefly describe the statistics from The Anatomy of the Long Tail
Rhapsody Amazon.com Netflix
Total Inventory: 735,000 2.3 million books 25,000 DVDs
Total Sales: 22% 57% 20%
- Rhapsody offers 19x as many songs as Wal-Mart's stock of 39,000 tunes.
Define: The Long Tail
- The appetite for Rhapsody's more obscure tunes makes up the so-called Long Tail. There is a real demand for niche music found only online
It's all about WORDS - Why do we say that? (What (3) aspects will Findability influence?)
- Findability will influence:
1. Defining authority
2. Allocating trust
3. Making decisions
Define: Knowledge Management (Definition + 3)
- The field that works to optimize the useful knowledge in an organization through:
2. Encouraging Learning
3. Organizing and making available knowledge artifacts
What are some ways that Knowledge Management can be implemented effectively?
- Sometimes what we know needs to be made explicit - that can be in images, charts, maps, etc. using color, graphics, and other tools to help express an idea or concept.
Define: The Noosphere
- The sphere of Human Thoughts
Describe: The Baldwin Effect
- Creatures survive changes by relying on acquired knowledge (made tacit) and skills learned from others, and that this may channel natural selection to favor UNLEARNED (but passed/inherited) versions of the same behavior
How do RFID's (Radio-frequency Identification) work?
- Tags are ready by an automatic electronic reader machine when in proximity to a reader - usually by having wristbands that children wear
Define: Social Informatics (again)
- A body of research that examines the social aspects of computerization
What was the Productivity Paradox?
- The fear of automation (a mechanical device, operated electronically, reducing human intervention to a minimum) and losing jobs
Define an ICT (Information and Communication Technology)
- Often use as an extended synonym for Information Technology (IT)
- Usually a more general term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers, middle ware as well as necessary software, storage- and audio-visual systems.
What are some social explanations that may provide insight to the Productivity Paradox?
- Systems developed in ways that lead to failures
- Systems not designed in ways to actually facilitate people's work
- Underestimation of how much skilled work is required to derive value from systems.
List the elements that are in Socio-technical Information Systems (6 roughly)
- People in various roles and relationships with each other and with other system elements
- Techniques and processes (management science models, voting schemes)
- Support resources (training/support/hel
- Information structures (content and content providers, rules/norms/regulations, such as those that authorize people to use systems and information in specific ways)
Define what makes up the following Socio-technical information Element: Hardware
- Computer mainframes
- telecommunication equipment
Define what makes up the following Socio-technical information Element: Software
- Operating systems
- Application programs
Define what makes up the following Socio-technical information Element: Techniques and Processes
- Management science models
- Voting schemes
Define what makes up the following Socio-technical information Element: Support Resources
Define what makes up the following Socio-technical information Element: Information Structures
- Content provides:
such as those that authorize people to use systems and information in specific ways, access controls.
The ROLES of Social Informatics (4)
- Develop reliable knowledge about IT and social change based on systematic empirical research
- Inform public policy debates, design, use, configuration, educations and training
- Intelligently addresses misplaces hopes about IT
- Adds value - performance / outcomes of work place
Describe a brief outline of Dr. Vannevar Bush's life and accomplishments.
- Born in Massachusetts and became an engineering student at Tufts, where he excelled in mathematics and began his career
- Finished both a BS ad MS degree in 4 years
- While in college he invented a land surveying device, called the profile tracer
- Worked for a time at GE, and then taught at Clark University
- Studied for PhD in engineering at MIT. Taught at Tufts and MIT and worked for Navy during WWI
- continued to develop machines with purpose to automate human thinking.
What are the Characteristics and Features of Utopian Technology? (7)
- Need and survival
- The vision of the future
- Religion and the myth of eternity
- Scientific strategy
- Intellectual amusement
Define the Benefits of Utopian Technology (6)
- Technology can better our lives by making them more ordered.
- Progress is an essentially good thing and requires order.
- Secrecy is power, and enhances freedom and privacy
- Order is good
- technology can solve problems, even problems that technology creates
- As a result problems are solved by increasing complexity and increasing order
- A literary and/or philosophical "bad place", anti-utopia, or hell on Earth, dystopia is the negative side of the perfect world, a haven corrupted by the misapplication of principles or theories or from deliberate tyranny, power-mongering, sadism, or subversion of human rights.
Define the Characteristics that make up Dystopian Technology (4)
- Technological Innovation is always resisted
- Feat of technology in the workplace
- Fear or replacement
- Ned Ludd and the Luddite movement
Who were Luddite's?
- A group of British workman, who between 1811 and 1816, rioted and destroyed textile machinery in belief that mechanization would diminish employment. They were led by Ned Ludd, hence the term "Luddites."
- one of aggressively opposes technical or technological progress.
Describe the Luddite's History
- Mechanization was seen as a cause for low wages and oppression of the workers.
- Under the direction of Ned Ludd, his followers broke into factories and destroyed the machines that were creating textiles
- Eventually in 1812 a law was passed in parliament that outlawed destruction of the factory machinery with penalty of death if convicted
- 12,000 troops were sent to defend the factories where the Luddite's were active
- Since then, anyone against technology are called Luddite's
What effects does Dystopian Technology have and what does this do?
- Can change behavior and patterns of behavior
- Technology is connected to or evolves into the state, creating a state of "authoritarian information technology"
What are the (3) basic assumptions that the effects of Dystopian Technology produce?
- Individual obedience to governmental authority
- Government creation of rational social order
- Control is maintained by technocracy (a system of government in which theory is applied)
Describe the Knowledge Hierarchy Model (PYRAMID) *HARD TO DESCRIBE IN TEXT*
- The bottom of the pyramid begins with Datawhich through conceptualization and cauterization jumps to Information which through contextualization and Personalization jumps to Knowledgewhich then runs back down to Informationthrough Explication and Conceptualization
- Bottom = Data
- Middle = Information
- Top = Knowledge
Define Data when dealing with the Knowledge Hierarchy Model
- String of identified but unevaluated symbols... (structured in some way)
Define: Information when dealing with the Knowledge Hierarchy Model
- Evaluated, validated or useful data
Define: Knowledge when dealing with the Knowledge Hierarchy Model
- Information in context of understanding
Describe Knowledge as a Process (5)
- Active state of knowing and/or acquiring knowledge
- Practice of organizing and identifying websites, documents and other web resources to allow useability and findability
What are the (4) Elements of the Structured Process for applying design principles?
Define Top-down Information Architecture
- Involves developing a broad understanding of the business strategies and user needs, before defining the high level structure of site, and finally the detailed relationships between content.
Define Bottom-up Information Architecture
- Involves understanding the detailed relationships between content, creating walk throughs (or storyboards) to show how the system could support specific user requirements and then considering the higher level structure that will be required to support these requirements.
Define: HCI (Human Computer Interaction)
- The study of how human beings interact with a computer
- Today, much of this research centers on how people interact with Websites and other Web objects (like blogs, wiki's e-commerce sites, etc.)
- This research is conducted by information scientists and computer scientist within universities and in commercial venues such as Google and AOL.
List HCI's (Human Computer Interactions) research methods (5)
- User studies - people work at the computer on assigned tasks
- All key strokes are logged in
- Video may be used
- Eye movements can be tracked and measured
- Think aloud recordings may be made.
What the the (3) factors that make up HCI's (Human Computer Interactions) Social Capital?
- Structural - Formation and maintenance of social networks
- Relational - Issues associated with trust, shared values and norms, obligations and expectations
- Cognitive - need for common context and language
Describe Nardi on Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)
- Bonnie Nardi is researcher at the University of California, Irvine.
- Her research is in the area of Computer Mediated Communication
- In her paper "Beyond Bandwidth" she describes an ethnographic study of online communication in workplaces.
- An ethnographic study "mines" interviews and observational data to conclusions and answers to research questions
Define a Dyad
- A pair
- In a state of readiness for change
Define Habeus Corpus
- You should have the body
Define Real World (RW)
- Used as a contrast to being online
- The state of being online and living in a computerized environment
- The ability to point out directly
What are the (3) dimensions of connections that Nardi names?
What is Metadata?
- Data about data
What is Taxonomy?
- Hierarchical arrangement of knowledge domains with classes flowing (down to) subclasses; polyhierarchies
What is an Ontology?
- Taxonomies with inference rules (p. 131); applied through standards such as Resource Description Framework (RDF), a W3C standard
What is Folksonomy?
- Collaboratively creating and managing tags to annotate and categorize content.
What is Web 2.0 and why do we use "2.0"
- In the past software was given version numbers, such as 2.0, 3.0, etc.
- However, Web 2.0 is being used in a metaphorical sense. The "2.0" does not refer to a version of software that makes the web work, but it refers to applications on the Web that "make most of the intrinsic advantages of that platform"
- This means that Web 2.0 allows people to add their own data to a site and to remix what others have added.
What made up Web 1.0? (8)
- Ofoto or shutterfly
- Buying online: Target online
- Britannica online
- Personal websites
- Online dating: Match
- Directories (taxonomy)
What makes up Web 2.0? (9)
- Buying and selling online: eBay
- Social Networking: Facebook, MySpace
- Tagging (folksonomy)
- Syndication (RSS)
What are the (6) factors that allow "The Intelligent Web to Harness Collective Intelligence"?
- Web as a platform
- Data is the Intel inside
- End of Software release cycle
- Light weight programming models
- Richer user experience
- Software above a single device
What is a Document?
- A document contains information, are describable (metadata!), can be accessed and as a concept have descriptive use in the digital world as well as the physical
- Genres are faceted classification
- Objects --> documents (Briet's rules)
What are the (4) factors of Interrelations between and among objects: Networked relations
- Intention - intended to be treated "as evidence"
- Process - processed or made into a document
- Perception - see as a document
- Indexing - organized within a collection of evidence
What is a Cybersquatter?
- "Speculator(s) who knowingly reserve trademarks as domain names to sell it for profit."
What did the Anticybersquatting and Consumer Protection Act do?
- The act provided remedies against anyone who, with a bad faith intent to profit, register, traffic or use a domain name that:
> Is identical or confusingly similar to a mark that was distinctive when the domain name was registered;
> Is dilutive of mark that was famous when the domain name was registered;
> Or infringes marks and names protected by statute such as Olympic symbol or Red cross.
What is one problem with the Nature of Query?
- Shifting nature, change over time, searcher doesn't know what to search for
What are the (4) techniques used in the search process
- footnote chasing
- citation chasing
- journal runs
- area scanning
TRUE OR FALSE: Information does not exist int he abstract; it needs to be constructed b the searcher
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