The scientific study of raw food materials and their behavior during formulation, processing, packaging, storage, and evaluation as consumer food products.
Science of food, the nutrients and other substances therein, their action, interaction and balance in relation to health and disease, and the processes by which the organism (body) ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, utilizes and excretes food substances.
Food Poisoning Statistics
Illnesses = 48 million
Hospitalizations = 128,000
Deaths = 3,000
Is not pleasant to eat, but it is not necessarily unsafe; most common factor between spoiled and unsafe is microbes.
Represents the best guess on how long a food will last before it spoils. Set based on quality factors and are useless if products are not properly handled and stored.
Is a sickness caused by consuming a contaminated food; symptoms include: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, dizziness, dehydration, coma, and death.
Require the consumption of viable microbes that grow and produce symptoms typical for an infectious disease.
Occur after consumption of foods in which microbes have produced a toxin.
Scientists who track the cause of an outbreak.
Occurs when more than one unrelated individual contracts a food-borne illness.
Involves reducing the chances that food will spoil or become unsafe.
7 Methods of Preservation
Food ingredients that slow spoilage and prevent food-borne illnesses.
Serve a useful purpose and must be effective for the intended use (Salt and Sugar).
Food safety starts with production and ends with the consumer. The least controlled step is whenever consumers handle and prepare food.
2 Simple Rules for Food Handling
- Keep hot food hot and cold food cold (40 and 140 degrees)
- When in doubt, throw it out.
Chemicals applied to crops to kill pests.
Avoids the use of fossil fuels and synthetic chemicals. Proper composting of animal waste should kill harmful microbes.
Induce an abnormal immune response in susceptible individuals (Gastroenteritis, anaphylactic shock).
Are not true allergies but symptoms are similar and unpleasant (sulfites, MSG, lactose).
Needed in the largest amounts and include carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.
Needed in lesser amounts and include vitamins and minerals.
Implies an imbalance resulting in poor nutrition and health.
Result of low blood sugar and may result in brain damage.
Foods are not necessarily less safe or less nutritious than simpler alternatives.
May refer to items that can be found in nature (fresh veggies, spices, venison).
Organic Food Production
Aims to minimize the use of fossil fuels and synthetic chemicals. Production requirements: no antibiotics, no synthetic growth hormones, no pesticide-treated feed.
Are readily identifiable by their original components (milk, fresh veggies, processed fruits, and ground meats).
Scurvy - Vitamin C
Night Blindness - Vitamin A
Anemia - Iron
Osteoporosis - Calcium
May increase or decrease risk of cancer; Cancer is not linked to a specific deficiency or single carcinogen.
Of fatty foods and sugars may increase the risks of other chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes and obesity.
Are substances to supply a need or reinforce one's diet.
Essential Needs - typical vitamin or mineral pills
Are those which contain ingredients marketed to perform a specific function: fortified cereals, beverages, ketchup (lycopene), wine (vesveretrol), snack bars (omega 3 fatty acids), nutritional bars, and yogurt (cultures and probiotics).
Is the voluntary avoidance of solid food intake for personal or religious reasons. Extended fasting (involuntary starvation) can lead to health problems: nutritional deficiencies, low blood glucose, ketosis, and death.
Serious eating disorders may occur when peer pressure clashes with biological needs; such as:
Anorexia - prolonged fasting
Bulimia - self-induced vomiting and abuse of laxatives
Binge Eating - weight gain
Is a major component in many foods. Caffeine and alcohol are diuretics so beverages with these components are not useful for daily needs.
Water Content of Some Foods/Beverages
Fruits and Veggies - 70-95%
Meats - 50-70%
Flour - 10-20%
Coffee - 99%
Beer - 92%
Soda Pop - 89%
Whole Milk - 87%
Vodka - 62%
Should not be overlooked for adding bulk to the diet.
Equals the amount of energy required to raise one gram of water one degree Celsius.
Equals the amount of energy to raise 1 kilogram of water one degree Celsius.
Nutritional Labeling and Education Act (NLEA)
1990 revised the layout and content to focus on calories and micronutrients contributing to chronic diseases.
Key Label Components
Principal Display Panel: brand, name of product, net weight.
Nutrition Facts: nutritional composition.
Ingredient Statement: list of ingredients in the food.
Other things (handling/preparation instructions, distributor's address)
Required on all processed foods unless exempt. Not required on whole foods but information is available elsewhere.
List of all ingredients in descending order of weight.
Are not always unsafe and unspoiled foods are not always. Proper cooking, rinsing, storage and sanitary practices related to foods decrease the chances of becoming ill.
The fundamental function of foods is to provide energy and nutrients for maintaining health.
Fasting, counting calories, avoiding certain foods, taking appetite suppressants or supplements, and exercising. Sensible Exercise Program with a sound diet is the most effective and healthiest way to lose weight.
Approximately 3,500 Calories corresponds to a pound of body weight. Fruits, veggies, and whole grains are high in fiber and water but low in calories. Coupled with a protein source and some fat, this diet can be satisfying.
Specify the types of animals that are permissible and forbidden, forbid the consumption of blood, and forbid the consumption of meat and dairy products in the same meal.
Also refer to permitted foods and are similar to Kosher laws in many ways. A difference is that locusts, shrimp and lobster are halal and there is no requirement to separate meat from dairy products.
Advertising is directed at communicating to first-adopters or influential individuals like Isaac.
Time and Trends
Diets have changed in a generation:
- Technology has changed the food supply
- People are generally sedentary
- More meals are consumed away from home
- Variety is much greater today
Bulk Purchases may be less expensive per unit, but only if there is no waste. Food consumes about 12% of the average U.S. household income, budgeting is still important.
Color, flavor, and texture are properties foods that affect what we eat. Sound is also a property (rice crispy; crunch).
Forms of Convenience
Speed-Scratch refers to packaged items (cake mix) that combine the essential ingredients but allow the consumer to prepare the food.
Speed is attained by various methods: drive-thru, multiple cashiers, limited menu. Foods are kept hot/safe: made-to-order, limited holding time, hot-food cabinets.
The antithesis to fast-food, slow foods are those that reject convenience foods. The emphasis is placed on quality with the experience covering all stages from shopping, preparing and enjoying the food.
An obsession with healthful eating is termed orthorexia nervosa and leads to the elimination of "bad" foods and limiting the choices for "good" foods
- Commonly called "food-handlers" disease.
- Associated with skin and nose of humans.
- Produces a heat-stable toxin.
- Cause of botulism (ptomaine poisoning) - CNS
- Most toxic protein known (easily inactivated by heat)
- Requires anaerobic environment for toxin production
- Associated with soil
Controlling Clostridium Botulinum
- pH < 4.5
- Temperature <10˚C for most foods, < 5˚C for fish
- Salt >15% alone, combined with other factors may be as low as 5%
Use of Heat to Kill Spores
12D Concept: enough heat to reduce 1012 spores to 1.
Wimpy Bug: easily controlled with sanitation and cooking.
- 20% of causes become life-threatening
- Generally associated with poultry
- Also an intestinal microorganism, thousands of species
- Usually transmitted by cross-contamination or the "fecal-oral' route
- Major reported cause of food-borne illness in the U.S.
- A cold tolerant group of bugs, usually associated with water and marine environments
- Raw seafood principal source of infection
- Part of the "coliform" group of bacteria
- Associated with the lower intestine of warm-blooded animals and some insects.
E. Coli O157:H7
A particular sub-species that causes infection in humans "new" in 1988 from Canada