when wealthy farmers bought up many small plots of land and then fenced in large areas to use as private pastures
around mid 1700s some British farmers began to use new technology in agriculture like crop rotation, iron plows, seed drill, etc
What effect did the Enclosure Movement have on landowners?
They were able to experiment with new farming methods
What effect did the Enclosure Movement have on peasants ?
Peasants were forced off the land, then went to cities to find work
an era of new technology that began in Britain It changed the way people lived and worked
alternating the kind of crops planted in a field from year to year
The name for yarn or cloth during the industrial revolution
families worked in their homes, to make cloth from cotton and wool supplied to them by a merchant.
Eventually, the demand for textiles was too much for the Cottage Industry to keep up with.
What was the most important sourceof energy later in the industrial revolution? Who“invented” it?
low-cost cotton,lumber, wool, etc. used to manufacture goods
A system of workers, machines, and equipment in which a product is passed from station to station until completed.
Factories/ Factory System
large buildings where workers and machines are brought togetherand goods are made. They took over after the cottage industry could not keep up.
Alexander Graham Bell
he invented the first practical telephone
parts on an assembly line which are designed in way that allows any part from one item can be fitted with any part from a second item.
EX: A gun bought in Boston can be fitted with replacement parts if it breaks in Philadelphia.
an economic system in which individuals invest money in businesses;
It is based on private ownership, competition, and profit.
a system of government in which all property and production belong to the people as a whole group, and are controlled by the government
An economic system inwhich colonies provide wealth to their parent country through trade
a strong feeling of loyalty to one’s nation, or country
the practice by acountry establishing and controlling colonies, to get raw materials and new markets for goods
Spheres of Influence
geographic areas or countries where a stronger country has influence and special rights in another country,
a Canal that connects NE Africa and W Asia; Helped increase trade between Europe and Asia
Important American inventor who created a system of electricity to light the light bulb.
He invented the cotton gin that made cotton production profitable in the American south.
This caused a dramatic increase in slavery in the U.S.
White Man’s Burden
A poem by Rudyard Kipling, the message contained in it was used by Europeans to explain their actions in the age of imperialism, late 1800s
German author who is considered the founder of socialism/communism. He wrote a famous book titled "The Communist Manifesto"
A famous Scottish professor who is considered the founder of capitalism. He wrote a famous book titles "The Wealth of Nations", explaining how capitalism works
The industrial revolution started here and happened between these years.
Great Britain/ 1750-1900
Trenches/ Trench Warfare
ditches that protected soldiers from machine-gun fire in WWI
No man’s land
the area between enemy trenches, strung with barbed wire, landmines, etc. during WWI
A revolution led by Vladimir Lenin, that caused the country to pull out of WWI. The revolution led to a socialist/communist government and economy.
The Great Depression
the economic decline and high unemployment during the 1930s that was the worst in the world’s history
This leader pulled Russia out of WWI and made the Communist party the only legal political party in Russia.
Allied Powers of WWII
From 1941-1945, Great Britain, France, Soviet Union, United States
Roosevelt’s New Deal
Bold ideas to help the economy recover from the Great Depression. These new laws and programs helped farmers, and people who were out of work.
a type of government in which power is in the hands of a military leader, and individuals’ rights are subordinate to (or less important than) the authority of the state (government)
Axis Powers of WWII
Around 1939-1945, Germany, Italy, Japan
Archduke of Austria whose assassination in 1914 is considered the event that started WWI
Causes of WWI
militarism - arms races
imperialism- global power
system of alliances - country clicks
Central Powers of WWI
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire (Turks); ***Ottoman Empire was broken up after WWI***
14 Point Plan
a document created by Woodrow Wilson,president of the U.S., that called for “peace of justice” to end WWI. For the most part it was rejected.
U .S. president during WWI; isolationist; declared war against Germany after American ships were sunk by u-boats and Germans tried to get Mexico to attack the U.S.
Treaty of Versailles
document that ended WWI and punished Germany harshly, leading to the rise of the Nazi party in Germany before WWII
agreements between nations to work together in case of war.
Italian dictator and Fascist leader of Italy during WWII
German politician and fűrher , or leader. As Nazi dictator of Germany during WWII. He planned the murder of millions of Jews and other minorities. This plan was called the "Final Solution" and led to the Holocaust.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
President of U.S. during the Great Depression and WWII; died before he was able to see the end of the war.
Soviet dictator of Russia during the early part of the cold war.
Harry S. Truman
He became president after Roosevelt died; gave the order to drop the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan
British prime minister (leader) during WWII. He help inspire Britain not to give up when Germany bombed England heavily during the "Battle of Britain"
Hitler's ALL OUT ATTACK strategy during WWII. Tanks and dive bombers paved the way for the infantry. The attack was swift and, if possible, a surprise.
an agreement to give-into an aggressor to keep the
This strategy led to fascist leaders, like Hitler, taking over other countries in WWII
Emperor of Japan during WWII.
European and Pacific Theaters of conflict
Major areas where Conflict and fighting took place during WWII
The most destructive new weapon of WWII; It was first dropped on Hiroshima, Japan. Then three days later, Nagasaki, Japan. This brought about the end of WWII in the Pacific Theater
a policy of separation from others, like the U.S. policy to stay out of European wars.
The U.S. foreign policy meant to stop the spread of communism after WWII. The Korean and Vietnam wars were both fought in an attempt to follow this policy.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Supreme Allied military commander of European forces in WWII; Planned and led the invasion of Normandy
After WWII, this was a new international organization, to replace the League of Nations in the hopes of preventing future wars.
the killing of an entire group of people.
Usually targeting a specific race, religion, tribe etc.
the mass killing of millions of Jewish people during World War II, a.k.a. The Final Solution
John F. Kennedy
U.S. president during the Cuban Missile Crisis; assassinated in 1963
A period of tension between the United States and Russia.
-All out nuclear war was barely avoided.
-Both countries competed in a technology and arms race.for decades.
After WWII, in response to the Holocaust, the U.N. gave part of Palestine Jews; This country was established in 1948; ' in order for he Jews to have a "Homeland".
A city in Israel that is the center of three major religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
a fence separating East and West Berlin, Germany; it was built in 1962 when the Allied countries refused to remove their forces from the city.
Cuban Missile Crisis
When this country, led by Fidel Castro, formed close ties with the SovietUnion in 1959; Americans learned that Soviet Union had built launching sites for nuclear missiles on this island country.
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese political leader and president of North Vietnam that fought the USA during the Vietnam War
A period of time when the space programs of the USA and Russia competed to see which country could become the most technologically advanced. the Russians sent a man into orbit. The USA sent men to the moon.
The leader of Russia (Soviet Union) when the cold war came to an end and communism fell apart. He was open to new ideas for his country.
He was the U.S. president that helped bring the Cold War to an end. He cut the size of government and increased military spending.
Bombing of Pearl Harbor
Japan launches a massive air attack on a U.S. navy base, Dec. 7, 1941; This causes the United States to declare war and enter WWII on the side of the Allies
Match these years with the events on the back: 1914 1929 1939 1945 1989
The Depression begins
The Cold War begins
The Fall of Communism (and the Berlin Wall)
A Cold War conflict where the North Vietnam leader, Ho Chi Minh, invaded South Vietnam with the help of the Soviet Union and China. Because of the USA's "Containment" policy, the U.S. aided South Vietnam to help stop the spread of communism.
Indian nationalist and spiritual leader, considered the founder of Indian independence; His strategy included peaceful, non-violent, non-cooperation
The use of force or violence to fill societies and governments with fear.
Supply and demand
An economic idea that says:
If only a few items of a popular product are made, people will be willing to pay a higher price for it.
If a product is not wanted, or too much of it is produced, people will only be willing to pay a lower price for it.
A large empire in southwestern Asia that was broken up after WWI and the remaining land became Turkey.
The geographic that surrounds the eastern and southern Mediterranean Sea.
World War II
The deadliest, most widespread conflict the world has ever known, causing over 50 million deaths; it took place in European theater, the Pacific theater, and N. Africa
Strong interest in armed power by a nation / A love of one’s own nation or culture
World War I
The War in Europe, that started in 1914., when the archduke of Austria-Hungary was assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia. Tension was caused by nationalism, militarism, and asystem of alliances;
A form of government with rule by the people; citizens have a voice in their own government
A war of "Containment" that the United States got involved in when Communist North Korea fought Democratic South Korea. When it ended a border was created at the 38th parallel.
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