The ailerons, the elevator or stabilator, and the rudder
Movement of any of the primary flight controls cause what?
Changes in the airflow and pressure distribution over and around the airfoil that affect the lift and drag produced. This allows the pilot to control the airplane around its three axes of rotation.
Are control surfaces attached to each wing that move in opposite directions from one another to control roll about the longitudinal axis.
Elevator or stabilator
Is the primary flight control device for changing pitch about the lateral axis.
Located on the fixed horizontal stabilizer on the tail of an airplane
One piece horizontal stabilator and elevator that pivots from a central hung point.
Is similar to the horizontal stabilator but is located in front of the main wings. An elevator is attached to the trailing edge of the canard to control pitch
It creates lift and holds the nose up rater than pushing the tail down.
Controls the movement o the aircraft about its vertical axis. Rudder controls yaw. Effectiveness increases with speed, because there is more airflow.
Secondary flight controls
Wing flaps, leading edge devices, spoilers, and trim systems.
Are attached to the trailing edge of a wing and are used during approach and landing to increase lift. It allows for an increase in the angle of decent without increasing airspeed.
Most common flap is the slotted flap
Are high drag devices deployed from wings to reduce lift and increase drag.
They are in gliders and some jig speed aircraft.
Are used to relieve the pilot of the need to keep constant back pressure on the flight controls.
Include - trim tabs, anti servo tabs, and ground adjustable tabs.
Are attached to the trailing edge of the elevator.
Lift =weight drag =thrust In unaccelerated flight.
High speed flow is accounted with low pressure and vice versa.
So the pressure on the top of the wing is less than it is below the wing. Generates a lift force over the upper curve surface of the wing.
Angle of attack
The angle between the cord line and the relative wind.
The angle of attack remains constant regardless of weight.
Occurs when the critical angle of attack is exceeded.
An airplane can be stalled at any airspeed in any flight attitude.
An airplane goes into a spin when one wing is stalled more than another, but both must be stalled
Forms when the temperature of the collecting surface is at or below freezing.
Disrupts the smooth airflow over the airfoil by causing early separation from the wing -decreases lift -causes friction and increases drag
Causes the plane to float on takeoff a and landings Is the result of the ground interference with airflow patterns around the plane.
Horizontal component of lift
Causes an airplane to turn by coordinating the rudder aileron and the elevator
Requires less effort to control. It returns to its initial position after being disturbed(position or altitude)
Is determined by the location of the center of gravity with respect to the center of lift
What happens when the CG is located aft of the CG limit?
Develops inability to recover from stall conditions and becomes less stable at all airspeeds
Is a left turning tendency that is greatest at low airspeeds, high angles of attack and high power(take off).
Causes the plane to yaw to the left at high angles of attack because the descending right side of the propeller has a higher angle of attack and provides more thrust than the left side.
Is the additional weight carried by the wings due to the airplanes weight plus the centrifugal force.
How much extra load can be imposed on an airplane wings?
It varies directly with the airplanes speed and the excess lift available.
Higher the speeds the greater the lift available.
Increased load factor causes what?
An airplane stalling at a higher speed.
When is a magnetic compass accurate?
Only during straight and level in accelerated flight.
The interference caused by the magnetic fields inside the plane
Northern hemisphere errors
On east and west heading (ANDS) accelerate north decelerate south.
It will indicate a faster turn than you are actually taking then slow down.
Compass error turns
Will lag way the start of a turn and indicate a turn the opp direction when turning from a north heading
South- will lead a turn or precede a turn when turning from a south heading.
East(right)- will initially indicate a turn to the west
Compass turning E W
E(right)- the compass will initially indicate a turn to the west and then lag behind the actual heading until your airplane is heading east
W(left)- will initially turn to the eastand then lagbehinduntil airplane is headed west
Is the source of pressure for the -altimeter -vertical speed indicator -airspeed indicator
Provides impact or ram pressure for airspeed indicator only
What happens when the pitot and outside static vents are clogged?
All three instruments mentioned Above will provide inaccurate readings.
If only the pitot tube is clogged, only the airspeed indicator will be inoperative.
Airspeed indicator- white arc
Full operating range. - lower limit is power off stalling speed with wing flaps and landing gear in the landing position. Vso - upper limit is the maximum full flaps extended is the maximum full flaps extended speed. Vfe
Airspeed indicator-green arc
is the normal operating range -lower limit is the power off stalling speed in a specified configuration. Vsf --is when landing gear and wing flaps are retracted. -the upper limit is the maximum structural cruising speed for normal operation. Vno
Airspeed indicator- yellow
For smooth air only. Known as caution range.
Airspeed indicator-red line
Vne. Is known as the never exceed speed.
Airspeed indicator- other
The maneuvering speed is the maximum speed at which full deflection of aircraft controls can be made without causing structural damage. Usually the maximum speed for flight in turbulent air.
Are numbered by the direction in which they point.
Are yellow signs with black letters and a arrow pointing to the destination.
Taxiway directional signs
Designation and direction of a taxiway.
Yellow background black letters and an arrow
Taxiway location signs
Identify the taxiway on which an aircraft is located.
Black background with yellow lettering
Taxiway Holding lines
Continuous Yellow Must stop Wait for ATC clearance
Identified by a green yellow and white rotating become
Non VFR at class D airspace is indicated by what?
A green and white rotating beacon
Military airport indication
Two white flashes and then a green flash
Airport taxiway lights
How to operate pilot controlled lighting?
Click mic 7 times for high intensity. Medium 5 times Low 3 times
Approaching without ATC
Left turns are standard unless specified
Comply with FAA traffic pattern when departing.
Enter at 45 angle to the downwind leg in the middle at 1,000 agl ( traffic altitude)
Visual approach slope indicators (VASI)
Are a system of lights to provide visual descent information during an approach to landing.
Two bar tier of lights: Both red- below glide path Top red bottom white- on glide path Both white- above glide path
R over w
Tri color VASI
Single light projecting three colors: Red- below Amber- above Green- on path
On precision approach path indicator (PAPI)
Four red lights- low Three red one white- slightly low Two whites two red- on glide Three white one red- slightly above Four red- high
Pulsating approach slope indicator
Flashing red-low Steady white/alternating red and white- on Pulsating white- high
Aka wing tip vortices- are created when airplanes develop lift.
Greatest when heavy, clean, and slow.
Circulation is outward, upward, and around each wing tip.
Tends to sink below plane emitting - fly above flight path of big jet and upwind
Night flight lights
Red light- an airplane is crossing right to left in front of you.
Green light- an airplane is crossing in front of you left to right
White light- flying away Red/green flashing- head on
Flashing red- all angles
Automatic termination information service
Is a cont broadcast of recorded non control information in busy airports Includes: -weather - active runways -ceiling not broadcast if above 5000 and visibility not broadcast if more than 5 statute miles.
Depicted by a blue segmented circled
Must maintain two way radio contact
Goes to 2500 ft about surface
Consists of surface area(5nm radius from surface to 4,000) and shelf(5-10 nm extending from 1200 to 4000 above the airport elevation. Outer area- not classified as class C, getsATC for 20 nm. Need: 4096 transponder Mode C capability Two way radio
Standard VFR- 1200 Hijacking - 7500 Lost radio-7600 Emergency code-7700 Interceptor code-7777
12 o' clock- straight ahead 3 o'clock-directly off right wing 6 o'clock- behind 9 o'clock- left wing
Also includes: Distance away in miles Direction of flight of other aircraft Altitude of other aircraft
Rock wings in daylight and blink lights at night in acknowledgement
The time between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight.
I practice is is one hour after sunset to one hour before sunrise.
Aircraft categories (airman certification)
Airplane Rotorcraft Glider Lighter than air
Airplane classes (airman certification)
Single engine land Multi engine land Single engine sea Multi engine sea
Rotorcraft classes (airman certification)
Lighter than air classes (airman certification)
Airship Free balloon Hot air balloon Gas balloon
Aircraft certification category
Transport Normal Utility Limited Restricted Acrobatic Provisional
Aircraft certification classes
Airplane Rotorcraft Glider Lighter than air
Same as category for certification for airman
Maximum flap extended max speed
Landing gear extended max speed
Max cruising speed
Best angle of climb
Best rate of climb
As long as the maintenance of the aircraft is performed per FAR's
Non necessary maneuvers.
Prohibited: Flight visibility less than 3SM Alt is less than 1500above the ground Within the lateral boundaries of airspace Within 4 NM of the centerline of a federal airway Over a congested area
Must use when: 60' bank A nose up of down attitude of 30'
Consists of airframe, engine, and all items of operating equipment permanently installed in the airplane, including optional special equipment, fixed ballets, hudraulic fluid, unusable fuel and undrainable oil
6lbs per gallon
Center of gravity
Point of balance along the airplanes longitudinal axis.
By multiplying the weight of each component of the airplane by its arm that components moment is determined
CG is the sum of the moments divided by total weight
Distance of weight from the dantum
Insufficient oxygen to body
Caused by: High altitude Blocked airway Drowning
Not enough oxygen in the blood
Caused by carbon monoxide
Oxygen rich blood in the lungs is not moving
Caused: Shock, Extreme cold Pulling excessive Gs in flight
Cells not being able to use the oxygen.
Excessive Air is breathed out of the lungs. Too much oxygen, not enough carbon dioxide.
Causes: Excited Stress Tension Fear Anxiety
Symptoms: Dizziness Hot and cold sensations Nausea
Not Knowing whether you are going up down or turning by being sent to the brain
Results from moist air condensing as it moves over a cooler surface
Warm moist air being cooled as it is forced up a sloping terrain
Precipitation induced fog
When warm rain falls through cool air
In winter by oceans
Towering Indicate turbulence & storms
Caused: Lifting action Unstable air Moisture
Characteristics: Stratified clouds Smooth air Fair to poor visibility in haze and smoke Continuous precipitation
Characteristics: Cumuliform clouds Turbulent air Good visibility Showery precipitous
Denote unusual hazards to aircraft- military
May be hazardous
Military operation areas
Military training activities Contact 100 NM out
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