theoretical view of personality that focuses on some phenomena and ignores others. The basic approaches are trait, biological, psychoanalytic, phenomenological, learning, and cognitive (the last two being closely related).
theoretical view of personality that focuses on individual differences in personality and behavior, and the psychological processes behind them
the view of personality that focuses on the way behavior and personality are influenced by neuroanatomy, biochemistry, genetics, and evolution
theoretical view of personality, based on the writings of Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes the unconscious processes of the mind
theoretical view of personality that emphasizes experience, free will, and the meaning of life. Closely related to humanistic psychology and existentialism
theoretical view that focuses o how behavior changes as a function of rewards and punishments. also called behaviorism
4 Kinds of clues to figure what a person is like
1- ask the person for their evaluation of their personality, 2- ask their acquaintances for their evaluations, 3- see how the person is faring in life, 4- watch as directly as you can what the person actually does
s data advantages
-large amount of information
- access to thoughts, feelings and intentions
- some s data are true by definition
- casual force
- simple and easy
s data disadvantages
maybe they can't tell you
- maybe they won't tell you
- too simple and too easy
i data advantage
large amount of information
- real-world basis
- common sense
- some i data are true by definition
i data disadvantages
limited behavioral information
-lack of access to private experience
L data advantage
objective and verifiable
L data disadvantages
-possible lack of psychological relevance
b data advantages
wide range of contexts (both real and contrived)
-appearance of objectivity
b data disadvantages
when people work hard to bring other to treat them in a manner that confirms their self-conception
the tendency for someone to become the kind of person others expect him or her to be. Also known as a self-fulfilling prophecy and behavioral confirmation
the "self-fulfilling prophecy" tendency for a person to become the kind of person others expect him or her to be. Also called the expectancy effect
a widely used test derived through the empirical method. Originally designed for the diagnosis of psychopathology, it is used today to measure a wide range of personality attributes.
test that presents a participant with an ambiguous stimulus, such as a picture or inkblot, and asks the person to describe what he or she sees. psychologists believe that the answer reveals inner psychological states or motivations of which the participant may be unaware
a projective test that asks subjects to make up stories about pictures
projective test that asks subjects to interpret blots of ink
exploration of the unknown; finding out something that nobody knew before one discovered it.
Qs to ask about quality of data
1- are the data reliable
2- are the data valid
in measurement, the tendency of an instrument to provide the same comparative information on repeated occasions
the variation of a number around its true mean due to uncontrolled, essentially random influences. Also called error variance.
the combining together of different measurements, such as by averaging them.
4 ways to increase reliability
- care with research procedure
- standardized research protocol
- measure something important
factors that undermine reliability
- low precision
- state of the participant
- state of the experimenter
- variation in the environment
Spearman-Brown formula in psychometrics
in psychometrics, a mathematical formula that predicts the degree to which the reliability of a test can be improved by adding more items.
an idea about a psychological attribute that goes beyond what might be assessed through any particular method of assessment
the strategy of establishing the validity of a measure by comparing it to a wide range of other measures.
the degree to which a measurement can be found under diverse circumstances, such as time, context, participant population, and so on. In modern psychometrics, this term includes both reliability and validity
the tendency for a research finding to be limited to one group, or "cohort", of people, such as people all living during a particular era or in a particular location
studying a particular phenomenon or individual in depth both to understand the particular case and in hopes of discovering general lessons or scientific laws.
the principle that aspects of personality and of situations work together to determine behavior; neither has an effect by itself, nor is one more important than the other
a personality test that consists of a list of questions to be answered by the subjects as true or false, yes or no, or along a numeric scale (1 to 7, for example)
a statistical technique for finding clusters of related traits, tests, or items
the process of assembling diverse pieces of information that converge on a common conclusion
the degree to which two or more people making judgements about the same person provide the same description of that person's personality
the degree to which a judgement or measurement can predict the behavior of the person in question
the degree to which one measure can be use to predict another
the philosophical view that reality, as a concrete entity, does not exist and that only ideas ("constructions") of reality exist
the philosophical view that the absence of perfect, infallible criteria for determining the truth does not imply that all interpretations of reality are equally valid; instead, one can use empirical evidence to determine which veiws of reality are more or less likely to be valid
a variable that affects the relationship between two other variables
the research strategy of focusing on one particular trait of interest and learning as much as possible about its behavioral correlates, developmental antecedents, and life consequences.
the research strategy that focuses on a particular behavior and investigates its correlates with as many different personality traits as possible, in order to explain the basis of the behavior and to illuminate the workings of personality.
the research strategy that attempts to narrow the list of thousands of traits terms into a shorter list of the ones that really matter
the research strategy that focuses on identifying types of individuals. Each type is characterized by a particular pattern of traits.
a set of 100 descriptive items ("is critical, skeptical, not easily impressed") that comprehensively cover the personality domain
change in personality over time, including the development of adult personality from its origins in infancy and childhood, and changes in personality over the life span
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