sudden reemergence of a CR following extinction when an animal/person is returned to the environment in which the CR was originally learned.
similar CS can cause the same CR
Ex: bells and beeps could both be similar enough to cause the salivation
the more similar to the original CS the new CS is, the stronger the CR will be
displaying a less pronounced CR (or no CR) to CS that differ from the original CS
Ex: dog may salivate to high pitched noises but not low pitched noises like a drum
developing a CR to a CS by virtue of its association w/ another CS
grandmother - NS. wears perfume. you smell perfume elsewhere and think of her. you feel good.
difficulty in establishing classical conditioning to a CS we’ve repeatedly experienced alone (without the UCS)
learning controlled by the consequences of the organism’s behavior
Thorndike’s cat puzzle box: cat in box, hit a thing and it opened. Took him less time each time.
Law of Effect
if a stimulus followed by a behavior (aka “response”) results in a reward, the stimulus is more likely to elicit the behavior in the future
something (good) given; behavior increases
- Ex: money given to reward
when something bad is removed, causing the frequency of the behavior to increase.
chores removed to reward
when something bad is given following a behavior, causing the frequency of the behavior to decrease.
spanking, a curfew, extra chores
something good is removed; behavior decreases
car taken away
signals that reinforcement is available if a certain response is made
Ex: your personal cell phone ring-tone, cat sees wiggling fingers and knows they will be pet.
gradual decline & disappearance of a behavior when we stop delivering reinforcement to a previously reinforced behavior.
Retention of information over time
memory in which we see the world through out own visual field.
memory in which we see ourselves as an outside observer -having this type provides evidence that we reconstruct memories
reinforced after same # of responses/same amount of time
reinforced after an average # of responses/ average amount of time
reinforcement given after a certain number of responses (do 5 good things, get a cookie)
reinforcement given after a certain amount of time has elapsed (do good for 10 minutes, get a cookie)
process of conditioning a target behavior by progressively reinforcing behaviors that come closer and closer to the target. (dog trying to roll over, every time they get close, give a treat)
linking a number of interrelated behaviors to form a longer series
Premack Principle (“Grandma’s rule”)
positively reinforce a less frequently performed behavior with a more frequently performed behavior (eat veggies, get ice cream)
actions linked to reinforcement by sheer coincidence
coffee =A+, lucky cap = best time
systems for reinforcing appropriate behaviors & extinguishing inappropriate ones
things that are naturally pleasurable; typically meet basic survival needs
Were neutral objects, but get paired with primary reinforcers (often through classical conditioning) until we find them rewarding too.
chips, stars, points, money
Applied Behavior Analysis
a set of techniques, based on operant conditioning principles, that relies on the careful measurement of behavior before & after implementing interventions.
S-O-R (Stimulus-Organism-Response) Psychology
1. The organism interprets the stimulus before producing a response
2. Response depends on what stimulus means to it
our interpretation of the situation affect conditioning
Learning that’s not directly observable, Happens without reinforcement
learning way around osu for example
learning CR’s by seeing consequences of other people’s actions
cells in the PFC that become activated by specific motions when an animal both performs and observes that action.
a. may prove to be the neural basis for how we learn from watching other
b. may play a major role in empathy
Conditioned Taste Aversion
classical conditioning can lead us to develop avoidance reactions to the taste of certain foods.
we’re evolutionarily predisposed to fear certain stimuli more than others
tendency for animals to return to innate (evolutionarily selected) behaviors following repeated reinforcement.
briefly retains the info picked up by the sensory organs a. Info from senses b. Info is often held < 1s (up to a few seconds) c. May be attended to and processed in STM or LTM (or disappear)
Visual sensory memory
Eidetic imagery: “photographic memory”
Short-Term Memory (STM)
stores limited amount of info over limited time
span (7+/-2) letters, words, #s duration: 18s
Working Memory (WM)
the memory store for the info we’re currently thinking about, attending to, or actively processing
repeating something over and over
linking stimuli to each other in a meaningful way -makes them more meaningful to you
gradual fading of info from memory (due to passage of time)/loss of info from memory because of competition from additional incoming info
new memory interferes with old memory
old memory interferes with remembering NEW information
Long-Term Memory (LTM):
sustained retention of info stored regarding our facts, experiences, & skills (can retain info for long periods of time often until the person dies)
type of long-term memory that appears to be permanent/(the main idea – meaning) info tends to be what is put into the LTM the most.
superior recall of early words
superior recall of most recent words
von Restorff effect
tend to remember stimuli that are distinctive/stick out from others (sugar, sweet, candy, zebra, soda, chocolate)
Memory of specific events in our lives (explicit) -What did you eat for breakfast this morning?
generalized knowledge of facts (explicit) -What do you call a baby cow?
info about how to do things (implicit) -How do you ride a bicycle?
with conscious effort/awareness, intentional recall
Where did you go on vacation? -Taking a quiz
without conscious effort/awareness, unintentional recall
Re-reading the chapter; doing the puzzle fast the second time
process of getting info into our memory banks
preoccupation w/ what you plan to say affects your memory for what person right before you sai
used to recall lists of words (rhyming)
Method of Loci
- Ex: think of a route you know – and relate words to things on the path
- Ex: relate foreign words to English translation (‘casa’ looks like ‘case,’ means house… house with a case on top).
organized knowledge structures or mental models that we’ve stored in memory
3 stages of longterm memory
encoding, storage, retrieval.
Distributed vs. Massed Practice
studying info in small increments over time (distributed) vs. in large increments over a brief amount of time (massed)
distributed = better
Encoding Specificity Principle
We’re more likely to remember something when the conditions present at the time we encoded it are also present at retrieval
superior retrieval of memories when the external environment of the original memories matches the retrieval context
Superior retrieval of memories when the organism is in same physiological or psychological state as it was during encoding. (INTERNAL environment)
ex, when depressed, all you can think of is other depressing things
the particular place in brain where all memories are stored
Long-Term Potentiation (LTP):
gradual strengthening of connections among neurons from repetitive stimulation over time
Loss of memories from our past
Inability to encode new memories from our experiences -Can’t form new memories
emotional memories that are extraordinarily vivid and detailed (9/11/01)
ability to identify the origins of a memory
failure to recognize that our ideas originated w/ someone else
"Look Lisa, snow."
creation of fictitious memories by providing misleading info about an event after it happens
Discrete Emotions Theory
Humans experience a small number of distinct emotions (even though they may combine in complex ways)
A small number of emotions appear to be universal across cultures
a combination of several primary emotions
(hatred is a combo of disgust and anger)
cultural guidelines for how & when to express emotions (women showing emotion = more acceptable).
emotions result from our interpretations of our bodily reactions to stimuli. Event → Arousal → Emotion (E.g.: we are sad because we cry)
Somatic Marker Theory
we use our “gut reactions” to help us determine how we should act (focus with this theory is on the decision making we go through before we ACT in a situation. Event → Arousal → (decision making) ACTION → Emotion
an emotion-provoking event leads simultaneously to an emotion and to bodily reactions. Event leads to arousal and emotion at the same time.
emotions are produced by an undifferentiated state of arousal along with an attribution (explanation) of that arousal. Situation → general arousal + explanation of that general arousal = perceived emotion.
Mere Exposure Effect
The more familiar we become with something, the more we like it
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Theory that blood vessels in face feed back temperature info in brain, altering our experience of emotions
Drive Reduction Theory
behavior is motivated by need to minimize aversive states – reason why we’re motivated to do things is because when we feel bad we don’t want to be in it anymore so we try to get out of it.
we tend to do best when at intermediate levels of arousal.
Approach vs. Avoidance
Approach-Approach Conflicts – choose between 1 of 2 desirable activities Avoidance-Avoidance Conflicts – Must pick 1 of 2 undesirable alternatives Approach-Avoidance Conflicts – An event/activity that has +’s and –’s ex. Annoying “friend” asks you to go to movie you really want to see. Multiple Approach-Avoidance Conflicts – 2+ alternatives; each have +’s and –’s (pros and cons list)
biological needs (food, air, water)/things that are emotionally fulfilling
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
i. Physiological: water. air, food ii. Safety: security and safety iii. Belongingness: relationships and friends iv. Esteem: prestige and feelings of accomplishment v. Self-actualization: achieving one’s full potential
a range of body and muscle mass we tend to maintain
When your blood glucose levels drop after you haven’t eaten in awhile, this triggers “hunger” i. Ghrelin: increases hunger ii. Cholecystokinin (CCK): decreases hunger iii. Leptin: affects long-term regulation of fat stores
hunger "light switch" -when insulin/leptin decreases = hunger increases -when insulin/leptin increases = hunger decreases - Nuclei of the hypothalamus when stimulated: - lateral: tells person to eat now!! - ventromedial: tells person to stop eating!!
Some have proposed that obese people are more motivated by external cues (smell, appearance, taste) than internal cues (stomach growling) a. Obese people tend to eat past being full b. New research suggests that oversensitivity to external cues is likely a consequence rather than a cause
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