It's an illustration of the idea that humans are inexorably intertwined with a culture. It is like saying that human beings do not exist. Instead, only Chinese humans or American humans. This was said by Gong-Sun Long
concepts of yin and yang; the five elements, phases, colors, animals, directions, and seasons; how people orient themselves with reality
5 Confucian relationships
father to son, friend to friend, older brother to younger brother, husband to wife, ruler to subject; father to son is the most important
Book of Songs, Book of Changes, Book of Documents, Book of Rites, Spring and Autumn Annals
Objects used for divination and first script
ox scapula and turtle plastrons also called the oracle bones, Shang Dynasty
Principles of Confucianism
filial piety, self-cultivation, humility, loyalty, and benevolence
When and why did Daoism become a major religion/philosophy
during the Warring States Period and The Three Kingdoms Period; People needed a reason for why there was so much violence and chaos in the world. Confucius said that people were inherently good, but the Dao de Jing said that the world was in chaos in between phases which seemed more reasonable at the time.
How were individuals identified in China?
Individuals were identified in terms of their place in a network of relationships. To be a good family member you have to honor your ancestors and bring honor and accomplishments to your family name.
The Chinese triumvirate or the cosmos
Man, Earth, and the Heavens, only man can break the harmony, the cosmos is shaped like a turtle, heaven is round and earth is square
First Emperor of China
unified Chinese script, burned books to keep people ignorant, buried Confucian scholars, forced labor on Great Wall, expanded China, standardized roads, broke loyalty to the state systems
Burning of the Classics
4 Classes of Society
gentry, peasants, artisans, and merchants; merchants did not really contribute to society. they merely made money by moving things about and didn't create anything
Why there was no need for a defined God
The Chinese worshipped their ancestors instead of gods; each person had their own ancestors, so no common god was needed
1600 BCE - 1050 BCE
Bronze Age: made artifacts, arts, and weapons
1050 BCE - 256 BCE
Warring States Period
403 BCE - 221 BCE
221 BCE - 208 BCE
206 BCE - 220 AD
Western 206 BCE - 9 AD
Eastern 25 AD - 220 AD
618 AD - 905 AD
Golden Age of Chinese Poetry: regulated verse, 8 lines
oldest surviving code of law and completion of the Grand Canal
589 AD - 618 AD
built the Grand Canal
Age of Division
220 AD - 589 AD
Three Kingdoms Period
220 AD - 265 AD
265 AD - 420 AD
Western 265 - 316
Eastern 317 - 420
9 AD - 25 AD
Spring and Autumn Period
770 BCE - 481 BCE
5th emperor of Han Dynasty, supported Confucian education, established music bureau, institutionalized Confucianism as the state ideology, founded the imperial college, castrated Sima Qian, 156 BCE - 87 BCE
thought that people were innately good; he said, "He who exerts his mind to the utmost knows his nature." He said "some people work with their brains and some people work with their muscles."
thought that people were innately evil so people have to work to be good, had the most political and administrative experience out of the three Confucian scholars
Three most well-known Confucians
Confucius, Mencius, and Xunzi
Why did Sima Qian accept castration instead of killing himself?
Because his dad's wish was for him to finish the great history. Sima Qian wanted to make their family name known for the purpose of honoring his family and ancestors. His castration was believed to be the greatest dishonor.
believed that death should be embraced, he said, "there is a beginning, middle ,a nd end..."
great poet and minister, slandered at court so he committed suicide, wrote the Chuci (second collection of poetry) of which the main poem is called the Li Sao, lived during the Warring States Period
Three Heroic Attributes Shown in the Movie Hero
filial piety, loyalty to principles, and selflessness, but the father to son relationship was violated
first collection of poetry, main theme: having no evil thoughts, simple love songs of country people, 4 words per line, about nature and people
written by Qu Yuan, mainly about nature, led to fu poetry, 6 words
Three most influential schools of thought in Chinese civilization
Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism
wrote The Literary Mind and the Carving of the Dragon
a capital during the Han Dynasty, came before Loyang
water north black turtle/snake winter
wood east green dragon spring
fire south red phoenix summer
metal west white tiger fall
Zhuangzi's philosophical thoughts
being and non being, relativity, and passionless
first Confucian classic; about filial piety, humility, action should precede words, morality, and loyalty
first Chinese poem that has an identifiable poet, first Chinese poem in first person, about emotional struggle and encountering sadness
The Chinese script
one of the most important unifying factors in Chinese culture
two important people of legalism
Lord Shang and Li Si
believed that man was inherently bad
writer in the Tang Dynasty, famous for regulated verse, autobiographical poems of the effects of war, failed the government exams twice
Celestial Master Daoism
Lu Xiujing, tried to reform the Daoist movement, set up communities and communal practices, drank talisman instead of medication
legalist philosopher, supportive of corporal punishment
Dao de Jing
written by Laozi, ideas: the uncarved block, lack of desire, controlled emotions, power through non-action, being and non-being, polar opposites, selflessness, simplicity, modesty of knowledge
word for heaven
It was called di during the Shang Dynasty, but during the Zhou Dynasty the word tian replaced di as the standard word.
Legalist thinker that served as a first minister for the kingdom, and later the empire of Qin
two main rivers in China
Yellow and Yangtze
Book of Music
The classic that Confucian thought was lost
common writing materials before the invention of paper
bamboo, silk, and wood
What did the Qin Emperor do the Chinese script?
He standardized it to a form that would remain basically unchanged for over 2000 years.
Book of Songs
includes the Greater Odes, Lesser Odes, hymns, and the airs or folk songs, which are the most common; each verse has 4 characters
"non-action" or the action of inaction
551 BCE - 479 BCE, believed that man was inherently good, China's first private teacher/philosopher, wrote The Analects, strived for moral perfection and wanted social order
also called complementary dualism or complementary pairing; yin: dark, cold, wet, moon, female; yang: warm, bright, dry, strong, sun, male; need both to exist; this concept focuses on balance
Why was there no warrior class in Confucian society?
Confucius believed that if all people fulfilled their duty/role in society, then war would not exist and thus there would be no need for a warrior class.
Confucianists believe in Li meaning rites/rituals. Men performed most of the the rituals in early Chinese history. It is opposed to fa which means law. Legalists believe in fa.
He was the general who surrendered in order to save his soldiers. He was killed for surrendering and accused of treason. Sima Qian was the only person to defend his honor to the emperor.
the turtle plastron is symbolic of
the cosmos and longevity
the meaning of Junzi
It means "superior person" which one can become through self-culivation according to Confucian teachings
Sima Qian's thoughts on the death of Qu Yuan
He thought that Qu Yuan's death was a waste, and that he took death too lightly. In Sima Qian's opinion, Qu Yuan should have moved to another state, and suicide was not the right answer/course of action.
the Owl Fu
about water and qi, Daoism is ver prevalent throughout this fu poem
believed to be based on the Li Sao by Qu Yuan, expository prose poem, 5 characters per line, used to gently criticize someone, during the Han Dynasty
Clifford Geertz's ideas on culture
"The total way of life of a people" He believes that culture is a blueprint and that "a white horse is not a horse."
How did the Zhou Dynasty change shamanism?
The king took over as shaman.
Why was Confucius content at the age of 70?
His interests matched those of heaven.
How been classics were there by the Tang Dynasty?
What three things did the Qin Emperor standardize?
weights and measures, script, and cart size
Letter to Ren An
This was written by Sima Qian who defends Li Ling. It is about self-cultivation, filial piety, relativity, selfless sacrifice, and honor/allegiance to country
What is the creation myth?
There is actually no creation myth. The world was not created by one specific person. Zhuangzi refers to the time before the world as primordial chaos.
All Under Heaven
"Tian Xia" A Chinese emperor rules all under heaven meaning he entire world. It was believed that China was the entire world.
Shwartz's ideas on culture
Culture is not a blueprint without human interference. There is always for room new culture and values.
19 Old Poems
These came about in 206 AD - 220 AD, early Han, under Han Wudi. These formalized the five character verse which eventually became 5 or 7. They are about war, sorrow, misery, evil, and the return of men from war.
speaks to the mind and heart, true expressions of what is going on in life, non-fiction
nonaction, being and nonbeing, passionless, reversal, no extremes, uncarved block, and water is the way
assassin who tried to kill the first emperor, praised by Sima Qian, believes that one must follow through on your word even if it leads to death
wrote Lu wen (the discussion of literature) about the importance of qi, believed that talents are dictated by qi, famous for fu yuan literature
wrote the "Faults of Qin," did not rule by li but instead by punishment, did not have the mandate of heaven so he was overtaken by heaven
What does disease come from?
Illness is a result of imbalance in qi or yin/yang in our bodies. There is no singular cause that can be isolated. Illness stems from a disfunction in the body that creates the conditions that allow for disease to occur.
The Wind Fu
about cosmological thinking, wind belongs to the king
Fu on Swords
The King is not good enough, so he locks himself away out of shame.
Who were Zhuangzi and Hui Shi
They were friendly rivals. Hui Shi critcized the Daoist perspective
1893 - 1976 simplified the script, gave his famous Talks in May 1942 at Yan'an, put China back together
leader of the Cultural Revolution, two of his novels include Diary of a Man Man and Kong Yiji, wrote in diary form, also believed that "a white horse is not a horse"
Who does Mao relate himself to and why?
The First Emperor, because both Mao and the First Emperor persecuted the scholars and educated people. They both knew the classical teachings. They both unified China. They both censored literary works preceding their time, and they both made the script easier to learn.
1898 - 1900. A group of Chinese proto-nationalists knowns as the "Boxers" attacked Christian missionaries throughout China. Their was over the increasing Western influence in China that was causing major cultural and economic distress.
1644-911, only 3 rulers, ruling by manchus, created encyclopedias, promoted classical scholarships, lived and worked in banners
end of the Qing Dynasty when the emperor abdicated
The Communist party took over government control after the Chines civil war.
Written by Bei Dao, this story conveys that fear of government keeps people from talking. The main character is always directing Fang Cheng to another Bureau or place. Nothing is accomplished in the story despite the efforst of the main character. This futility represents the effects of a repressive regime. Nobody wants to take the responsibility for fear of possible punishment from the state.
indicated that fiction should be renovated to renovate the world, advocated for the use of fiction for self-cultivation because fiction appealed to the common people, he was the opposite of Confucius who tried to keep people away from fiction
indicated that seeds of revolution turned to be the seeds of China's own destruction
Judge Bao ?
one for each class' execution: commoner, aristocracy, and the royal family
768 - 824 Tang Dynasty. He reaffirmed Confucian classics as the basis of education and good writing. He believed that Confucianism could rejuvenate the state. He wrote memorial on the bone of Buddha in opposition of Buddhism
1662 AD - 1722 AD During his rule Jesuits were allowed in the imperial palace
This concept refers to a soulmate, someone who understands a specific person's inner heart, thoughts, and feelings.
It is empirical and magical. It is predicted by deductive reasoning and logic, not scientific reasoning.
May 4th Movement
1919, caused by the Versailles Treaty, Japan was given Shandong Province where Confucius was born, start of the first modern literature writing style: regular speech about regular people. In addition 3,000 students protested in Tiananmen Square against the Versailles Treaty.
4 styles of calligraphy
1) zhen shu 2) cao shu 3) li shu 4) zhuan shu
most well-known dowager, Emperor's Cixi's dowager, spent the navy's money on building a huge marble boat that wasn't fuctional
1949, stressed the importance of the peasant, intellectuals vs. peasants, Mao persecuted intellectuals and wanted them to learn from the peasants. It was a social movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 through to 1976. Set into motion by the Chinese government, then led by Mao Zedong and the Chinese Communist Party, it was designed to further cement socialism in the country by removing capitalistelements from Chinese society.
People's Republic of China
established in 1949 by Mao
Similarities and Differences between communism in China and in the Soviet Union
similarities: same political organization
differences: people's democratic dictatorship instead of the dictatorship of the proletariate
"a white cat, black cat - either will do so long as it catches mice"
The quote is talking about practicality and pragmatism. This quote was Mao's justification to not take an ideological stand.
Three things that impeded development during The People's Republic
no free press, people could not decide where they lived or what they would do for work, and peasants could not leave villages
events that set off the Japanese invasion in Manchuria
1931 : the bombing of a railroad in southern Manchuria
1937 : Japanese invasion
leader of the Nationalists
1644 - 1900
3 main rulers of the Manchu
Kangxi, Yongzheng, and Qianlong
1840-1842. Britain waged it against China in order to help keep the balance of trade. Britain got the Chinese addicted to opium to regain the stream of money spent on Chinese tea, silk, and porcelain, which were in high demand
1850-1864 a widespread civil war in southern China
outcomes of the Treaty of Nanjing
British won and forced China to pay silver as indemnity and lower the tariffs. China could not even set its own rates.
Why didn't China not develop like other countries during the Qing Dynasty?
unequal treaties, low tariffs, competing with foreign manufacturers, incompetent government
1316-1644, founded by Ming Taizu or Zhu Yuanzhang, a peasant ruler; Beijing was finalized, short stories: harmony has to be restored by the end of the story and they express how the Chinese see themselves
title to those who past the hardware civil service examination and could hold high office jobs
developments in popular culture during Ming Dynasty
written fiction such as romance novels, plays, and an increase in vernacular literature
a philosopher that advocated friendship over the other Confucian values and that merchants should be higher in social status than peasants
combination of Buddhist and Daoist ideas, important pioneers: Zhu Xi (most important), Cheng Yi, and Cheng Hao, during the Song and Ming Dynasties, focuses on the investigation of li and fine detail, ex. landscape painting
tells the unusual, classical, short stories, Tang Dynasty, themes: spirits and were foxes, talented men, beautiful women where they were viewed as the heroines, Talented Man and Beautiful Woman: while taking the civil service exam the man was smitten by the woman who tried to suck his blood
Chinese medicine vs. Western medicine
Chinese: you identify relations and restore harmony; logical, magical
Western: you identify the cause of the problem and eliminate the cause; scientific
capitals during the Tang Dynasty
Chang'an and Luoyang
Buddhism in China
arrived in the first century AD from the Silk Road, the single greatest foreign influence on Chinese culture, beliefs: heaven and hell, karma, abstinence, leave family to pursue life, suffer now and build karma to start over again, very introspective
regarded as "China's great poetess"
Southern Song Dynasty painting
There was a loss of depth, space, and monumentality to reflect the collapse of the dynasty.
Buddhist monk, principal human character in Xi You Ji (Journey to the West)
verse plays, emerged during the Yuan Dynasty
strokes in individual characters are conneted
each character is connected
The Battle of Red Cliffs
most important battle of the Three Kingdoms period
known as the Golden Age of Chinese poetry
two fundamental types of Chinese medicine
acupuncture and herbs
"Jin Ping Mei" or "Gold Vase Plum"
1550 - 1650. It was the pornographic novel of China about a man named Xi Men Qing. In addition, it was written for a reading audience and was therefore not from the oral tradition. The author is unknown.
Dream of the Red Chamber
written by Cao Xueqin, the most famous Chinese classical novel, main character: phoenix. Phoenix tricks her husband and ends up killing herself. It is about family disintegration and interpreted as the two heroes fighting the Confucian system
Civil Service Exam
This gave Confucian scholars the chance to have government positions. It began in the Song Dynasty.
Confucius' ideas about fiction
Confucius believed that there was no point in fiction and that fiction can lead you astray. Language is only meant for self-cultivation.
This came about in the 5th century from middle eastern monks. It means transformations. Along with huaben (Ming Dynasty), it the beginning of fiction in China. It alternates between verse and prose.
This means reciprocity. When someone does something for you, you have to do something for them. Confucius believed in this idea.
Examples of sexuality in Chinese literature
Diary of Miss Sophia
Love in a Small Town
He punished injustice and corruption and made many enemies. He was a popular character in Chinese fiction, known for sharp powers of logic and reasoning. He appeared in the Jade-Faced Cat and Yan Chasan. He is in the Ming Collection of stories
A cultural army as well as a military army is needed to transform to a country. The literature must change to reflect change in ideals/systems of government in a country. A military army alone cannot achieve this.
longest reigning emperor in China
Kangxi, reigned from 1661 - 1722 during the Qing dynasty
The banner system was originally set up in the early 17th century in the qing dynasty. It is a social hierarchy that groups Chinese citizens under one of 8 banners. Not all Chinese are under a banner. The banner system disappeared by the early 20th century. People lived and worked in these banners
A lot of her writing advocated individualist philosophy. Her essay "Thoughts on march 8th" about gender inconsistencies in communism was especially infuriating, so the Communist party got angry with her. She also wrote in diary form.
Importance of Literature
Mao thought that literature was so vital to the Communist Party. Literature conveys the way and has always been a source of self-cultivation, education, culture, and governmental criticism. When literature only conveys the communist way, it is much easier to integrate communist ideals into the existing Chinese culture.
Lu Xun believes that Chinese people are asleep in an iron house with no way to escape, but he decides it is better to wake them to their fate of death through literature and hope that they find a solution, rather than let them perish quietly. The Iron House represents hope.
The blank page is qi. The black ink on white paper represents the balance between yin and yang. The stroke of the brush involves manipulating many hairs to create a single line which relates to the Chinese idea of collective harmony and shows the energy of the painting. It is a philosophy or a cosmology.
Cao Cao is seen as the arch villian, similar to the First Emperor of China. This is primarily due to his dramatization in the fictional work, The Romance of the Three Kingdoms. In this story, the main character knows everything and can predict events 3 days before they occur.
She lived during the Qing Dynasty and ruled the throne of China through two young emperors from 1861 - 1908.
These are a type of regulated verse that is sung with lines of uneven length and certain rhyming patterns. They were highly emotional, and often about love. The Ci was first sung by women in brothels during the Song Dynasty
Diary of Ms. Sophia
written by Ding Ling in 1927 who wrote from her own perspective
1914 - 1991. She was the last wife of Mao Zedong. She formed the Gang of Four: one the masterminds of the cultural revolution, directed the Red Guards against other senior officials, and was considered the "First Lady of the People's Republic of China"
He was the strategist for the Shu Han kingdom during the Three Kingdoms Period. He famously predicted the direction of the wind during the Battle of Red Cliffs. To many this seemed magical, but his predication came from extensive study of wind patterns.
He was a politician and writer in the Tang Dynasty who wrote the famous classic, Yingying's Biography that depicts the relationship between a young girl of a wealthy family and a man of lesser roots.
Yang Guifei and Anshi Rebellion
Yang Guifei was the favorit consort of Emperor Xuangsong during the Tang Dynasty. Her close relationship with An Lushan was seen to have blinded the Emperor to An's greater ambitions to take the throne. When he did revolt and read the capital, Xuangzang's bodyguards strangeled her, blaming her for the rebellion.
last emperor of the Golden Age of the Tang Dynasty
Emperor Xuangzong. His reign ended with the Anshi Rebellion. He was a Buddhist monk who traveled to India during the Tang Dynasty to obtain the Buddhist scrolls. His journey took him 17 years. It is recounted in the famous novel Journey to the West.
Also called Journey to the West, this was a novel about Xuangzang's journey to India. It was published in the 1590s during the Ming Dynasty. It is considered to be one of the four great classical novels, which include The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Water and Margin, and Dream of the Red Chambers
1937, first piece of literature written in a dialect, Beijing dialect, against individualism, representation of communism, first time anyone wrote about a peasant, the character wanted the rickshaw to be independent and had very simple goals
An Lushan Rebellion
755 -763 started during the time of Emperor Tang Xuanzong
collected and made the book San Yan, wrote three collections and each has 40 huaben
main characters include monkey, pigsy, sandy, and tripitaka
on literature and art,
Love in a Small Town
written by Wang Anyi, about a skinny man and a big women, both are dancers
The 3 Brothers
li bei, bang yu, jang fe, supreme advisor: jubiliang
Wu Pao An Ransoms His Friend
friend to friend relationship is greater than family, starts with a poem about how no one understands friendship anymore and that friendship is all about profit.
wrote the Shi ji
The Great Preface
3 genres of poetry
fu, regulated verse, and short stop
antithetical couplet: The third line is opposite of the fourth line in tone. The fifth line is opposite of the sixth line in tone. It is 5-7 characters per line, and each one has 8 lines
half of regulated verse so its 4 lines, during the Tang Dynasty
using the empty space, painting is calligraphy, became more romantic, paintings got smaller as the empire got smaller, draw from your mind and not from nature
check pulses, ask about what you have eaten, look at your tongue
3 ways of diagnosing illness: pulse, tongue, and complaints
Confucianism compared to Daoism
self-cultivation vs. the way, similarities : Both believed that knowledge is not for sake. It serves other purposes. Also, both believe in not going to extremes.
said that "intellectuals sew the seeds of their own destruction"
oral traditions, huaben: speech, storytelling, Master Shen's Bird and Wu-Pao An
Lady Knight Errant
1640, strange stories from a Chinese studio, qing dynasty, revenge for her father's death, gave the Ku family a son
Farewell My Concubine
The King of Chu is saying farewell to his concubine, Xiao Yu. There is a correlation between the movie and the opera in the movie.
xiaoshuo, shows more sympathy towards women, meant to convey the way, meant to teach you how to be human, new morals, and new ideas
This literature should be praised. Literature is bound to the revolution so we must write revolutionary literature. It was usually in diary format, often about cannibals and paranoia. It wasn't Classical Chinese so it was easier to read. Cannibalism can be seen as a metaphor for the eating away at China.
This literature should be opposed. It's existence is questioned, and it can be considered non-literature. There is no time for anti-revolutionary literature in a revolutionary time.
Is literature propaganda?
According to Upton Sinclair, "all literature is propaganda, but not all propaganda is literature." Lu Xun agrees that all literature is propaganda once it is showed to someone
Master Shen's Bird
Daoist, one bad thing leads to more bad things and one good thing leads to more good things
It starts in Zhuen Huang and ends in Italy. There were no words to translate Buddhism in China, so Daoist words were used, Buddhist monks told stories around China
In 1934 it was made the official genre of writing in the Soviet Union
On Socialist Realism
1959, literature should have rich content and technique, shows how to be a good ruler and achieve moral perfection
Northern 960-1127, Southern 1127-1279, beginning of Neo-Confucianism, there is li in everything, Confucian scholars could take the civil service exam
The man didn't marry her because he didn't want to be distracted by her and wanted to pass the examinations which he didn't pass. When men seduce women they have to abandon them. She said that if he asks her mother he will be able to marry her, but instead he got rid of her. His friends said that she would ruin his life.
where Mao gave his Talks, poorest and most undeveloped part of China, communist wen there to solidify their strength to overcome nationalist
ruled the Yuan Dynasty
6000 miles, reached Yan'an in 370 days
a military general of Shu Han during theThree Kingdoms era
the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, instrumental in the Communist Party's rise to power, and subsequently in the development of theChinese economy and restructuring of Chinese society
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