1.) Criminological - deviance is a crime 2.) Normative - violation of a social norm 3.) Social constructionist - socially constructed (depends what environment you are in)
Why is the idea of context dependency so important for the social constructionist theory of deviance?
Depending where you are can decide whether the act is deviant or not. Ex. - murdering someone or killing them in a war. Ex. 2 - baby out the window
What has Howard Becker to say?
Acts are considered to be deviant if people respond to it negatively and define it as deviance. The same acts are considered deviant in some contexts and not in others, because people respond differently.
What are Becker's main points about learning how to smoke marijuana?
Ideas organize the experience, not the other way around. All of these techniques are learned, which means they're social no natural.
Key points of Erikson's analysis in Wayward Puritans :
is a functionalist analysis of deviance --> isn't necessarily bad, rather, it fulfills important functions for society. Deviant whose activities have moved outside the boundaries of group distinguishing "we" good and "they" bad (boundary violating)
Durkheim had 3 larger goals in his study of suicide :
1.) Sociology is a science 2.) Social facts are real 3.) suicide is a problem of solidarity
Social facts are :
a.) external to the individual=social fact is not a characteristic of an individual, but a characteristic of society. b.) coercive over the individual=regardless of people's individual states, feelings, ideas, social facts direct behavior. marriage-social pressure, religion.
Gerson describes the dilemmas of involved fatherhood as :
stemming from social ideas about what type of behavior is appropriate for fathers. EX - very influential norm that men are supposed to work full-time and provide, mothers watch children, some men blame this on why they do not spend time with family.
What does Durkheim mean when he talks about the "coercive power" of social facts?
that people feel both obligated to follow these rules, and that people's individual internal lives aren't what determine how society works.
What holds traditional societies/groups together?
by mechanical solidarity --- people are connected to each other because they do the same things (traditional/agricultural setting everyone works on farms)
What holds Modern societies/groups together?
by organic solidarity --- people do different things, but need each other to fulfill their needs (bankers need farmers so they can eat).
4 types of suicide and what they are:
1.) altruistic - results from over identification with the group. (suicide bombers, widows throw themselves into fire) 2.) anomic - results from lack of order and rules in society (anomie=normlessness) stock market crash, started great depression 3.) egoistic - results from isolation and excessive individuality (senior citizens by themselves)
4.) fatalistic - results from no hope or release from a routine situation, no change (amish)
How would Durkheim respond to someone saying, "You can never have enough freedom,"?
This isn't true. Those with a lot of freedom, those who do and think however they want, tend to have too much freedom leading to despair. People have to have social structure.
What is the main problem with the "unhappiness theory" of suicide?
Durkheim's perspective: focuses on individual internal factors rahter than social and large-scale external factors.
Give examples of ways that the U.S. is stratified. Does it only refer to money?
It does not only refer to money. People are stratified based on education, occupation, cultural capital.
What are self-fulfilling prophecies and what are examples of them?
They refer to the fact that (sometimes) people respond to the views, ideas, and labels people have about them by acting in this way they are viewed. Ex(1) working-class are expected to remain working class by graduating high school, not going to college, and following parents in similar jobs.
How does tracking work in education?
tracking is separating students by academic ability into groups, the entire school is assigned to classes according to whether the student's overall achievement is above average, normal, or below Ex(1)Rosenthal and Jacobson "intellectual bloomers" about 1st and 2nd grade.
How do opportunity shapers work?
characteristics that influence individual chances:
tracking --> shapes educational opportunities
family background --> shape occupational opportunities, through educational
networks --> shape occupational opportunities
What is cultural capital? How does it work?
is a non-financial social assets, that may be educational or intellectual, which can promote social mobility beyond economic means
What are the main purposes of education in the U.S.?
3 C's :
connections (social networks - weakly tied)
Give examples of diachronic and synchronic research. What do those terms mean?
Diachronic - studying something over time. Synchronic - studying something at a singe point in time.
to learn about social mobility, it's important to do diachronic research because we can only determine whether people's social status changes if we consider it over time.
IntERgenerational mobility -
across or between generations
Do you have more or less education than your parents? Do you expect to earn more or less than they do? What about our grandparents?
There is a fair bit of movement, but generally much class stability
IntRAgenerational mobility -
within a single generation
over your lifetime, will your social status shift significantly up or down? Think about this in relation to the social or class status you've inherited from your parents intragenerational
there is a lot of occupational mobility, for the educated
Main facts about the distribution of income in the U.S.
income is distributed unevenly in the US (this is mostly b/c of the increase in the superrich)
ranges in income distribution of income are increasing
more people are in poverty than 20 years ago
general level of well-being has increased, however.
What does "market position" mean?
3 things : education, occupation, income
It refers to the value of the position in the job market a person holds
How is wealth different from income?
wealth is the total value of everything an individual owns
income is salary from jobs, usually measured annually
there is greater inequality in wealth than in income
What does the theory of meritocracy say?
social status comes from academic achievement and hard work
it concentrates on individual effort as key to determining social status
success should not depend on things unrelated to merit
shows commitment to equal opportunity
Why are weak ties more important than strong ties in getting jobs?
Weak ties are people you see more than once a year but less than once every 2 weeks.
If you rely on strong ties to get you a job, you may not get one since you may have the same contacts
Strong ties do not want to risk friendship over a job
What are the main findings of "status attainment" research?
education is key
social origins matter
What is educational "credentialing"?
the process whereby completed educationals degrees serve as a point of authority or professional qualification.... regardless of the actual content of the degree itself.
What is the main point of Robert Reich's article?
the connections between school and work should be much stronger and more direct
He is opposed to education as a credentialing system
argues instead that education should teach skills that lead directly to jobs, and help workers in jobs
"School to Work" programs
According to Ehrenreich, what is it like to work at a low-paying job?
low-wage is demeaning and difficult
doesn't pay enough to pay the bills
he discovers that working hard does not always lead to success
What is functional discrimination?
behavior that differentiates based on some function or for some reason, rather than because of prejudice. Ex(1) being accepted as pro basketball player, height is used as a discriminatory characteristic: taller = better.
What is the difference between discrimination and prejudice?
discrimination is an action
prejudice is a thought/feeling or attitude
What is the "one-drop rule"?
Anyone who has one drop (1/4, 1/8, 1/32, etc.) in their body is black. Anyone with black ancestry is considered black.
What was the key finding of Plessy vs. Ferguson?
US Supreme Court declared that a Louisiana law mandating separate but equal accommodations on intrastate railroads was constitutional
this ruling provided the foundation for many other government actions designed to separate and segregate black and whites
What was the Court's definition of "black"? (Plessy vs. Ferguson)
any person with black ancestry (beginning of "one-drop rule")
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