Traditional authority - the legitimacy of the authority comes from tradition or custom, or because "it has always been that way."
- the legitimacy of the authority comes from the leader's exceptional personal qualities, or the demonstration of extraordinary insight or accomplishment, which inspire loyalty or obedience from followers.
carried forth in bureaucracies. The legitimacy of the authority comes from a system of bureaucracy and legality, which means that power resides in a legal order and the laws that have been enacted in it.
What are examples of each authority? - traditional
Traditional - found in more traditional, pre-modern societies, although with a lot of carry-over into modern societies. EX---Royal families, emperors, church leaders, also those who occupy traditional informal roles with authority, such as parents (especially fathers), elders.
What are examples of each authority? - charismatic authority
Charismatic resides in individuals, and is considered to have magical properties. Very personalistic, and tends to be unstable in that it disappears or is absorbed into other authorities over time. EX----Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, Mother Theresa, Ghandi, Jesus, Obama
What are examples of each authority? - rational-legal
Authority resides in a complex set of rules that expands ever-outward into our lives, and is enforced by a similarly expanding number of agents (such as the police, parking people, auditors, bank managers, home inspectors, etc.)
Found in modern societies.
if you've ever filed a tax return, you've encountered bureaucracy -- also if you've had health insurance (and tried to use it), gone to the DMV, opened a bank account, bought a car, put you in direct contact w/bureaucracy
How does each type of authority answer the question, "Why do people do what they're told?" Be able to recognize those answers and examples.
traditional - people follow because they always have, and those before them always have. people tend not to question it.
charismatic - they believe in the (magical) powers of the particular personal characteristics or skills of the leader. (Obama, Jesus)
rational-legal - the legitimacy associated with the role. E.G. police: we respond to the ability of the police officers to enforce laws and punish, regardless of who fills the role.
What kind of authority is characteristic of modern society? Examples?
- all aspects of the criminal justice system.
What did Max Weber think was distinctive about modern society?
- Weber thought it was different because of the invention and spread of rationalism.
- was interested in the operation and expansion of large-scale enterprises in both public & private sectors of modern societies (bureaucratic coordination of human action
- behavior was more controlled by governments and corporations.
3 elements of rationalization, or rationalism. Give an example of each. (FIRST)
Increased knowledge - science and technology grow more important in society. look to experts for info about best way to do things and care less about traditional ways of understanding. EX-doctors always know best.
3 elements of rationalization, or rationalism. Give an example of each. (SECOND)
Expanded domains of control - knowledge permits control over more aspects of nature, and more control over society.(bureaucracy) EX-insurance companies and women giving birth at home.
3 elements of rationalization, or rationalism. Give an example of each. (THIRD)
Increased impersonality - position or the role matters, not the individual. parking lady don't trust her personally but trust that she does know the rules of parking.
What does it mean to say that society is increasingly rationalized over time?
- people have less control over their lives, and less ability to do what they want.
- Weber worried about the extension of rationalism because he thought it killed people's creativity and sense of humanity.
What is the chief mechanism tat carries rational legal authority into ever-more areas of social life?
Bureaucracy. - It makes it possible for large-scale organizations to have more control over people's lives.
- Everything we use is regulated and governed by rules. Even toilet paper (packaging, size, composition, etc.)
Know how power and responsibility are distributed in bureaucratic organizations. Give examples.
Hierarchy - there are layers of office, like a pyramid.
Power is concentrated at top, moving DOWN less power
Responsibility is concentrated at the bottom, moving UP more responsibility
Power is vested in the office not individuals.
Efficiency and rationality - meeting goals in the best and shortest way possible.
Specialization - each unit of bur. org. to meet a particular goal, or complete certain set of tasks. (student financial hold example)
What is the typical response of bureaucracies to inefficiencies? Why is that response typical?
Bureaucracies respond to inefficiencies by further "bureaucratizing" them. Bureaucracies tend towards inefficiency - even though efficiency is one of their main goals - because of over specialization and too much separation between layers of offices.
- it's typical because it is the same way that bureaucracies respond to everything else. The bur. doesn't realize that its own way of functioning is creating problems.
What is rationality?
- It is increasing human mastery over the natural and social environment.
- rationality puts efficiency as one of its most important goals. in an increasingly rational society, the key is for large-scal org. to extend their control over social life.
- they want to do it in the best, easiest way possible, and by applying knowledge.
What is the "tool view" of organizations? What is a good example of it?
- Is that organizations themselves are neutral - neither good nor bad - and are simply tools for achieving goals.
- this is different from weber's view of large organizations. he thinks there are many negative consequences of rationalization and bureaucratization.
According to the tool view of organizations, who is most responsible for setting organizational goals?
- organization itself is a tool to setting goals.
- person at top has tool to set all goals in organization
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