Has evolved as the most significant human development for understanding the natural world
Rationally explains cosmological evolution
Scientific understanding can evolve and change
What does the Scientific Method require?
A family of hypotheses- they must be testable
What is a theory?
A theory is a hypothesis that has been tested many times and has an established body of evidence for support. They are never proven to be true, but they can be disproven
What is geology?
Geology is the study of the Earth, mainly planet's physical composition, behavior, and history
Explain the Doppler Effect. What does it apply to? How does a compressed sound wave sound as compared to an expanded sound wave?
Waves compress or relax with relative motion
Applies to waves of both sound and light
A higher pitch can be heard from a compressed sound wave, while a lower pitch can be heard from expanded sound waves
Visible light is ____
Visible wavelengths range from _____ to _____ nanometers. What color is associated with each? Which color has a higher frequency?
400- Blue (higher frequency), 700- Red (lower frequency)
Light from an approaching star is _____. Stars moving toward Earth are shifted toward what color?
Light from a receding star is _____. Stars moving away from Earth are shifted toward what color?
What did Hubble discover in the "Doppler Shift"?
Galaxies were moving away rapidly
No galaxies were found to be moving toward Earth
What is the "Red Shift"?
"Red Shift" = Source is moving away from the Earth at a very high velocity
What was the Big Bang?
The beginning of the expanding Universe
All of the mass and energy in the Universe was packed into a single small point
It exploded 13.7 Ga and has been expanding ever since
After 3 minutes of cooling, what elements were formed? After further cooling, early elements began collecting into what?
H, He, and Li were formed after 3 minutes
After further cooling, early elements began collecting into clouds called Nebula
Gravity causes largest nebular cores to become very ______
H and He collided, allowing what to happen?
More complex elements were formed, up to Fe
How long after the Big Bang did it take for the first stars to form?
What happens after the H and He is used up?
After the H and He is used up, the star enters the supernova stage
How did the remaining 92 elements form?
Supernovae explode and scatter mass into space, forming all of the remaining 92 elements
How did a 2nd or 3rd generation nebula form from H, He, and heavier elements?
They formed from fusion reactions in stars and during explosions of supernovae
What did the nebula condense into?
The nebular condensed into a swirling disc called an accretionary disk
How did the sun form? What orbits the Sun?
The center grew dense and hot for fusino to begin and become our sun. Solid dust particles condensed into rings that orbit the sun.
When did meteorites and moon rocks form?
4.6 billion years ago
What are the four stages of the formation of the Earth?
Planetesimals grew by continuous collisions
Gradually, an irregularly shaped proto-Earth developed
The interior heated up and became soft and gravity reshaped the proto-Earth into a sphere
The interior of the Earth separated into a core and mantle
What are the three stages of the formation of the Moon?
A small planet collided with Earth soon after both were formed
This collision blasted debris into a ring that orbited the Earth
The Moon formed out of this ring of debris
How did the oceans and atmosphere form?
Eventually the atmosphere developed from gases spewed out of volcanoes. When the Earth cooled enough, moisture condensed in this atmosphere to form rain that created the ocean.
How many planets are in the solar system?
8 (Pluto is no longer a planet)
What are the three characteristics of a planet (as according to the 2006 redefinition of a planet)
A planet is in orbit around the Sun
A planet has sufficient mass so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (round) shape
A planet has "cleared its neighborhood" around its orbit
What is a moon?
A moon is a solid body locked in orbit around a planet
What is a "dwarf planet"?
A dwarf planet orbits the sun and has a nearly round shape
What is a "small solar system body" (SSSB)?
A small solar system body is in orbit around the sun
What are Terrestrial planets? Which ones are they?
Terrestrial planets are Earth-like, small, dense, rocky, closest to the sun, too hot for light gases, and they leave behind heavy minerals. They include Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. They were formed around 4.7 billion years ago.
What are Jovian planets? Which ones are they?
Jovian planets are Jupiter-like, large, low-density, gas-giants, farthest from the sun, mostly gas, and they have small rocky cores. They include Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
What are the components of the solar system?
Kuiper Belt and Oort Belt objects
Which planets are ice? Liquid water? Water vapor?
Ice: Jupiter, Uranus, Pluto, Mars
Liquid Water: Earth
Water Vapor: Venus, Mercury
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