To communicate in a homeostatic control system how do each of the following travel: neurotransmitters, cytokines, endocrines, and juxtacrines?
neurotransmitters: via IF
cytokines: via IF, plasma, or lymph
juxtacrines: physical touching of cells
Differentiated cells have the (same/different) genetic component
Tissues are composed of (a single/multiple) type of specialized cells
One of the main fibers in the extracellular matrix is rope-like ____
More than half of the fluid in the body is found within the
The plasma membrane is composed of ______, ________, and _____. The __________ allows for cell identification. Peripheral proteins interact only with the __________ ___________, and ___________ aids in the formation of vesicles
Lipids, proteins, and carbs
What type of physical connection between cells allows intracellular fluid movement?
During the hot summer months, your set point for body temperature is increased so that slightly less energy can be spent cooling the body. This alteration is an example of an ___________ to a warmer environment and _________ action before a disturbance from steady state
EC messengers can be regrouped because: _________ and ____________ could be combined because only they use the interstitial fluid and ____________ and ________________ could be combined because neurons release the majority of them.
The plasma membrane (can, cannot) bind chemical messages, the forming of the bilayer (does, does not) require energy, and all of the proteins (are, are not) amphipathic.
can, does not, are
Free radicals are _________ agents, they (can, cannot) exist in our bodies
without entering from external sources, and we need to take_________ like ___ and ___ to help eliminate them
Oxidizing, can, vitamins like A and D
A body parameter at steady state is within an allowed range called the
____ _________, the body is using ________ to maintain the state, and _________ feedback will return the parameter to steady state if there is a disturbance
Set point, energy, negative
Your friend has a quarter of her liver removed. She does not understand how she can live with only a fraction of her liver. You correctly tell her that it is
because of the redundancy of the components within her liver, and, unlike her heart, her liver has multiple ___________ ____________
Signals for the HCS can move through either the ___________ or __________ fluid and they (do, do not) need to detach from the sending cell
Extracellular, intracellular, do not
HCS stimulus can be _________ or ___________, (afferent, efferent) signals are passed to the integrating center, and _________ signals are used to pass the messages.
Internal, external, afferent, chemical
For the cellular metabolic pathways, _________ works without oxygen and _________ _________ _________ uses H+
Glycolysis, Electron Transport Chain
Membrane-bound receptors bind (polar, non-polar) ligands, the ligand stays in the _________ _________, their activation can result in _________ _________, and their ligands (do, do not) need a plasma binding protein
Polar, Interstitial fluid, Protein synthesis, do not
In the process of the sodium-potassium pump working, the action that causes the conformation change that allows potassium ions to bind to the transporter is____________________.
The release of sodium ions
A ligand that is hydrophobic can find its receptor in the ________ and usually requires the use of ________ ________ ________
Nucleus, Plasma binding protein
Krebs cycle occurs in the ___________ and makes ____ via substrate level phosphorylation
The concepts or actions that will increase the likelihood of activation occurring are the ________ and _________ both being complimentary for the ligand and receptor, having the system become ______ regulated, and
__________ the receptors.
Shape, charge, up, anabolizing
During facilitated diffusion the ions must _____________________ to then be moved into or out of the cell, it does not require _________ because ions move with their concentration gradient, and it allows passage of ions through the __________ environment of the plasma membrane.
Bind to the transporter, energy, nonpolar
What the significance of high concentrations of ATP down regulating glycolysis and Krebs cycle?
It allows for ATP production only when it is needed
The set of characteristics that would require the compound Bronsonium to only be able to move into the cell via active transport are _______, ________, and a ________ concentration inside the cell.
large, polar, higher
You have 2 fluid-filled compartments (A and B) that contain equal volumes of water and are separated by a membrane that is permeable to water and sodium. To increase the rate of sodium diffusion from compartment A toward compartment B, what could you do?--- 3 things
Add more sodium ions into compartment A, decrease
the thickness of the membrane between the compartments, and/or add more water to compartment B.
Glycolysis can produce latctate in an ___________ environment, the ____________ makes the largest amount of ATP, and both ___________ and ____________________ require oxygen.
Anaerobic, electron transport chain, Krebs and electron transport chain
Aquaporins allow water to move 3 ways.
across the plasma membrane, with its gradient, and into or out of the cell
Active transport (AT) uses ____ directly, ____________ has the two things moving in the same direction, and _________ AT has one of its ions moving with its
ATP, cotransport, secondary
A correct reason why action potentials move in only one direction along axons are because of __________________before returning to rest.
If the efferent pathway of the reflex arc contains only one axon within the PNS, then the physiological response will probably be ___________________
A voluntary muscle contraction
In the sympathetic nervous system, response typically takes the effector
_______ from its steady state, the ________ ________ is one of its subcategories, it is part of the ___________ nervous system, and it typically has a ________ preganglionic neuron than its postganglionic neuron.
Away, Adrenal medulla, Efferent, Shorter
An electrical signal is conducted via _____________ between the nodes of Ranvier and the _____________ of the potentials in adjacent nodes of Ranvier are the same
Graded potential, amplitude
The axon of an __________ neuron receives an input from a sensory cell, and then the axon sends the message towards the ___.
Glial cells take up approximately ______ of the volume of the
CNS and ____________ cells produce the fluid around the neurons
Vm indicates the _________ (i.e., electrical) _________ across the cell
membrane and it is the sum of the _______________ for all ions.
Voltage gradient, equilibrium potentials
Since both parts of the autonomic nervous system use __________ at the preganglionic synapse, the ganglia must be at ________ locations so that the messages remain distinct.
How to up regulate a synaptic signal: --- 3 things
to release more neurotransmitters from the pre-synaptic neuron, anabolize receptors in the post-synaptic neuron, and/or increase the membrane potential in the post-synaptic neuron
The ________ _________ connects the two hemispheres of the cerebrum and the ______ matter of the brain is outside of the _______ matter
Corpus collosum, gray, white
Astrocytes remove, regulate, and are important in what?
remove potassium from around the neurons, they regulate the blood-brain barrier, and they are extremely important in fetal and early childhood development
Hyperpolarization, in a neuron axon, helps action potentials be ____________, it can be caused by _________-charged ions leaving the cell, and it causes a _________ stimulus to be needed for an action potential to occur.
Unidirectional, positively, stronger
Where do action potentials occur and what drives the process?
Excitable cells only, cell's response
Where are high pitched sounds coded?
At the base of the cochlea
The somatosensory system is the classic sense of _______, the stimulus is received directly by ____________, some of the main type of receptors include _______, ________, and ________, within the cerebral cortex the signals are received by a spacially organized pattern called _______.
The receptive field of a neuron might overlap with another receptor field, has its size _________ related to specificity, is involved in __________ a stimulus, and has density _________ related to sensitivity.
Indirectly, localizing, directly
In the chemosensory system, the information gathered is only about ___________, is the classic sense of ______ and _______, within the mouth, the umami glands __________________, and within the nose, the receptors last only about ____________.
Dissolved chemicals, taste and smell, binds glutamate causing a sense of flavorfullness, two months
On Easter, you eat some hard candy, sugary treats with your friends. You correctly tell them three things---
There is a delay before you taste the treat while it dissolves, the sugars are binding to receptors on your tongue, and the “healthy” ones have artificial sweeteners that act as agonists.
When detecting sound waves, _______-gated calcium channels must open on the stereocilia to release ____________, _______-gated potassium channels open to allow _________ to enter the stereocilia, and _____ noises bend the stereocilia further than ______ noises
Prerequisites for generation of an action potential on the skeletal muscle cell at the neuromuscular junction requires three things:
Voltage-gated channels allowing calcium ions to enter the somatic efferent, Ach being exocytosed from the neuron into the synapse, and activation of ligand-gated sodium ion channels on the muscle cell.
After getting your scantron from a Phys Phab, you sat down in your seat, which activated your ____________ and ____________ . Then you turned your head to the right to grab the stack of exams from Cindy, which activated your __________
Saccule/utricle and semicircular canals, semicircular canals
Under low light conditions, the cones are _____ active than the rods, more than one receptor is activated when the color purple is perceived, and red-green
colorblindness occurs when ______________________________
Less, two pigment responses overlap too much
Lateral inhibition reduces____________, it codes for _____________, and it is the result of _________________.
The number of APs that reach the brain, the location of the stimulus, multiple adjacent neurons being activated
The perception of signals from the afferent nervous system can be impacted by three things:
Relative number, combination of signals activated, and the interpretation of signals
How is a motor neuron action potential converted into an action potential on a skeletal muscle fiber?
Ca+2 enters the motor neuron and initial Na+ entry into the muscle is ligand based
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