A range of more abstract to less abstract terms describing an event or object.
Language consisting of words and phrases that have more than one commonly accepted definition.
A statement in which the second half cancels the meaning of the first, for example, "I'd like to help you, but I have to go or I'll miss my bus."
The process of adapting one's speech style to match that of others with whom one wants to identify.
Speaking in a way that emphasizes difference from others.
Language that conveys the sender's attitude rather than simply offering an objective description.
A pleasant term substituted for a blunt one in order to soften the impact of unpleasant information.
A statement that can be verified as true or false.
A statement that describes the speaker's reaction to another person's behavior without making judgments about its worth.
A statement based on an interpretation of evidence.
A statement in which "it" replaces the personal pronoun "I," making the statement less direct and more evasive.
The notion that the language individuals use exerts on a strong influence on their perceptions.
A statement based on a speaker's beliefs.
Rules governing the way in which sounds are pronounced in a language.
Powerless Speech Mannerisms
Forms of speech that communicate to others a lack of power in the speaker; hedges, hesitations, intensifiers, and so on.
Rules that govern interpretation of language in terms of its social context.
Language that classifies members of one racial group as superior and others as inferior.
Words that gain their meaning by comparison.
The best-known declaration of linguistic relativism, formulated by Benjamin and Edward Sapir.
Rules that govern the meaning of language, as opposed to its structure.
Words, phrases, and expressions that unnecessarily differentiate between females and males or exclude, trivialize, or diminish either sex.
Treating people or objects as if they were unchanging.
Rules that govern the ways symbols can be arranged, as opposed to the meanings of those symbols.
The use of first-person-plural pronouns to include others, either appropriately or inappropriately. Language implying that the issue being discussed is the concern and responsibility of both the speaker and the receiver of a message.
A statement that expresses or implies a judgment of the other person.
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