What watery substance is released from your mouth?
Define the epiglottis
a structure that covers the opening to the wind pipe to prevent food from entering it/otherwise you would choke
waves of muscle contractions
food that has been chemically and mechanically broken down in the stomach into a watery liquid
Where does most of the digestion take place?
in the small intestine
the wall of the small intestine is covered with finger like projections called villi that help increase the the surface area of the small intestine and allow nutirients in the chyme ot have more plcaes to be digested
What is the main job of the large intestine?
to absorb water from the undigested mass which keeps large amounts of water in your body and helps maintain homeostasis/ the remaining material becomes somewhat solid
What does the rectum and the anus do?
after the solid undigested mass leaves the large intestine, muscles in the rectum and the anus control the release of the semi-solid waste from the body
(True Or False) Prometaphase is the last step of Mitosis
False, Telophase is the last stage of mitosis
(True Or False) Adenine is not one of the nitrogen bases found in RNA
False, it is one of the nitrogen bases
(True Or False) DNA’s shape resembles or appears to be a double Helix
Budding is a from of reproduction, done by Hydras, (plant)
Meiosis cells, unlike most cells, only have 23 chromosomes
________ is made up of two chromatids, and a centomere.
The 2nd step in Mitosis, _______ begins when chromatin condenses into chromosomes
________ is over after cytokenesis is complete
________ and Guanine, nitrogen bases, are always together, in RNA and DNA
________ is used to regrow body parts. Sponges are organisms that can use this.
___________is the process of lining up the chromosomes in the middle of the cell.
A ________, is used as a map of guide to build certain protein
________ are Organelles used to build Enzymes.
________ is made up of 4 nitrogen bases, and ribose sugar phosphate
The beginning of building proteins starts when ________ goes into the Cytoplasm.
Nitrogen base that isn’t not in DNA but is in RNA
What is different about Cytokenesis for plant cells, then animal cells?
Cell plate is used
Centrioles are organelles that control ________
Bacteria use what kind of reproduction?
Human & Animal Cells use what kind of reproduction?
How many main types of RNA are there?
What are cell plates are made up of?
Meiosis is the creation of ______ cells
List all the steps of Cell division. Including subsections.
Mitosis Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase
What is the longest step of Cell Division? Why?
Interphase, this is because of all the copying and replicating a cell has to do. Also the cell has to grow to double its normal size.
Give a definition of Mutation
A permanent change in DNA, this could be an advantage, or disadvantage. Objects like X-rays, Sunlight, and other chemicals can cause it. It is due to the miss-match during the copying of DNA
substances in foods that provide energy and materials for cell development
Name The Classes of Nutrients
Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Vitamins Minerals Water
What do organic nutrients contain?
large molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
Define Amino Acids
smaller units, or building blocks of proteins/you need 20 of them and 8 are essential amino acids that the body cannot make
Give three example of complete proteins
Eggs, Milk, Cheese
the main source of energy for your body/each molecule is made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
What would sugar be considered as and what would starch and fiber be considered as?
simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates
Define Fats/Lipids and why are they so important?
provide a second source of energy, help the body absorb vitamins, fat tissue cushions major organs, and are major parts of every cell/ In fact a gram of fat can release twice the amount of energy than a gram of carbohydrate
What are fats classified as?
Saturated and Unsaturated
Organic nutrients needed in small quantities for growth regulating body functions, and preventing some diseases
Define Water Soluble Vitamins
Need to be replenished everyday because the are excreted by the body
Define Fat Soluble Vitamins
Stored by the body in fatty tissue
Inorganic nutrients that lack in CARBON and regulate many chemical reactions in cells/ also builds cells, send nerve impulses, and carry oxygen to to body cells
How many minerals does your body carry?
Why is water so important?
because a person could only last 2-3 days without it/a person's body is made up of about 60% of water and next to oxygen, water is the most important thing to have/it also takes place in every chemical reaction/in your blood/ most things need water
Why do you get thirsty?
When your body needs to replace lost water, it sends messages to your brain that result in you feeling thirsty/ drinking water then satisfies your thirst
The four unifying principles that form the foundation of modern biology.
Cell Theory, Evolution, Homeostasis, Genetics
8 Steps of the Scientific Method
State the Problem
Hypothesis Supported/Not Supported
Has a known outcome
The factor being tested is applied
What is a scientific theory?
An explanation of things or events based on scientific knowledge that is the result of many observations and experiments.
What is a scientific law?
A statement of how things work in nature that are true all of the time.
All living things are called . . .
What are the five characteristics of an organism?
Cellular Organization, Use Energy, Grow and Develop, Respond to Surroundings, Reproduce
What is a cell?
The basic unit of structure and function in an organism. It is also the smallest unit of life.
What is genetic material made up of?
Growth is . . .
the process of becoming larger
Development is . . .
the process of change that occurs during an organisms life to produce a more complex organism.
What is a stimulus?
A change in an organism's surroundings that causes the organism to react.
What are the four necessities of all organisms?
Energy, Water, Living Space, Internal Stable Conditions (homeostasis)
An organism that produces its own energy source.
Either eat autotrophs to obtain food stored inside them or eat other heterotrophs.
What are some things that water does?
Helps organisms obtain chemicals from surroundings, break down food, grow, move substances within their bodies, and reproduce.
Maintenance of stable internal conditions is called ___________
What does the theory of Spontaneous Generation state?
Living things can come from nonliving things.
What does the theory of biogenesis state?
Organisms come only from other similar organisms.
Which scientist disproved Spontaneous Generation using S-necked flasks?
Some scientists hypothesize that the earth is about __ billion years old.
Who suggested that the gases of Earth's early atmosphere could form proteins and nucleic acids?
What were the gases of early earth?
Ammonia, Hydrogen, Methane, Water Vapor
Which two scientists set up an experiment to test Oparin's hypothesis?
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
How did Aristotle categorize organisms?
Aristotle classified organisms by whether they were a plant or an animal.
How did Carolus Linnaeus classify organisms?
He grouped organisms with similar structures.
The evolutionary history of an organism, or how it has changed over time.
Name the categories used in Phylogeny.
Kingdom - Phylum - Class - Order - Family - Genus - Species
What is the popular mnemonic used for the categories of Phylogeny?
King Phil Cried Out For Good Soup
What is the two-word naming system used to identify different organisms?
The first word of the two-word naming system identifies the . . .
Genus (a group of similar species)
The second word of the two-word naming system identifies the . . .
Species (describes something about the organism)
What are the four benefits of binomial nomenclature?
Organisms with similar Phylogeny are grouped together (related)
Give descriptive information
Allow information to be organized easily and efficiently
What is the detailed list used to identify animals in nature using 2 descriptive statements at each step?
Compare and contrast an animal and a plant cell.
Both cells have cell membranes.
They both have DNA and have a nucleus.
Both types of cells have Golgi bodies, Mitochondria, Endoplasmic Reticulum, and ribosomes.
A plant cell makes its own energy (chloroplast) while an animal cell doesn't.
An animal cell has a lysosome, while a plant cell doesn't.
A plant cell also has a cell wall and a larger vacuole.
What is the primary job of the nucleus?
To direct the cell's activities. (Deli Manager)
What does the mitochondria do?
It produces ATP, energy that the cell can use, during respiration or fermentation.
What is the difference between Smooth ER and Rough ER?
The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum does not have any ribosomes attached to it, while the Rough ER does. The job of the Smooth ER is to transport substances such as lipids and glucose, while the job of the Rough ER is to transport proteins to the Golgi Bodies.
What are the Golgi Bodies, and what do they do?
The Golgi Bodies are a system of flattened sacs. Proteins are packaged into small packages called vesicles.
What do ribosomes do, and where are they found?
Ribosomes have the code (RNA) for making proteins, and turn amino acids into proteins. They are found in the cytoplasm or attached to the Rough ER.
What do vacuoles do?
Temporary store materials.
What is the "recycler" organelle of the cell that contains digestive chemicals to break down old cell parts and wastes?
What is a prokaryotic cell?
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that has genetic material and a cell membrane, but no organelles or a nucleus.
What is a eukaryotic cell?
A cell that has membrane-bound organelles and a membrane-bound nucleus that contains chromosomes.
What is the semi-fluid medium in which organelles are suspended in (most of cytoplasm)?
What helps to maintain the cell's shape?
2. Nuclear Membrane
5. Rough ER
6. Golgi Bodies
8. Smooth ER
How did the invention of microscopes help early scientists study life?
Cells are microscopic, meaning that they are not visible to the human eye. So, by magnifying them, scientists are now able to see what they are and learn more about them.
What 3 things does the cell theory state?
All organisms are made up of one or more cells.
The cell is the basic unit of organization in organisms.
A cells come from cells.
Who is the most responsible for forming the cell theory?
What is a virus?
Genetic material surrounded by a protein coating.
Do viruses have nuclei or organelles?
Viruses need a _____ _____ to replicate.
An active viruses forces its host cell to do what?
Make copies of the virus
What happens to a host cell after an active virus is finished with it?
It is destroyed
If it is a latent virus, what happens when the virus enters the cell?
Its DNA becomes a part of the host's DNA.
When can a virus go from being latent to active?
When certain conditions make it happen (e.g. cold sore)
What types of cells do viruses affect?
Viruses affect specific types of cells
Viruses that infect bacteria are called ___________.
What is the job of a vaccine?
To prevent viral diseases
What is a virus made of?
Weakened virus particles
Who created the first vaccine and for what disease?
Edward Jenner (smallpox)
What are warning signals produced by infected cells to help non-infected cells when a virus is present?
What is gene therapy?
Replacing defective DNA with healthy DNA using viruses
What does it mean if a cell membrane is "selectively permeable"?
The cell membrane will allow things that it wants in and keep things that it doesn't want out.
Define passive transport.
The movement of materials through the cell membrane without the input of energy from the cell.
Give three examples of passive transport.
Osmosis, Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion
The random movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
When the concentration on each side is equal, ______________ has been reached.
_________ is the diffusion of water through a cell membrane.
What is facilitated diffusion?
Facilitated diffusion occurs when large molecules, such as glucose, are diffusing but need the help of transport proteins.
Define active transport.
Active transport is the movement of materials through the cell membrane with an input of energy from the cell and transport proteins.
What are endocytosis and exocytosis?
When large molecules require active transport, the cell membrane folds itself around the molecule during endocytosis. In exocytosis the contents of this vesicle fuse with the cell membrane and are released.
The total of al chemical reactions in the body.
What is the equation for photosynthesis.
6C02 + 6H20 + Light Energy - - - C6H1206 + 6O2
Where does photosynthesis occur?
Where does respiration occur?
Where does fermentation occur?
What is the most important substance produced during respiration/fermentation?
Why does fermentation start to occur in the cells of humans?
Not enough oxygen
Which stage takes up the most time during cell division?
_______ _________ is the growth and division of the cell.
What happens to the cell during interphase?
It doubles its size, organelles, and DNA.
The stage of cell division during which a nucleus divides to form two nuclei.
It moistens the food and breaks down complex carbohydrates
The smooth, wavelike muscle contractions of the esophagus are called . . .
How is food mechanically and chemically digested in the stomach?
Mechanically, the food is mixed and churned within the stomach. Chemically, the food is mixed with the enzyme pepsin and hydrochloric acid.
What is the thin, watery liquid that leaves the stomach?
What does bile do, and where does it come from?
It breaks down large fat particles in the small intestine, and it is produced by the liver.
What does insulin do?
It allows glucose to pass from your blood into your body's cells.
What are the thin, fingerlike projections that line the small intestine and absorb nutrients?
What is the main job of the large intestine?
To absorb water.
Who discovered that microorganisms caused diseases in humans?
Who developed a way to identify bacteria?
Which surgeon figured out that cleanliness would help save lives?
Define infectious disease.
A disease caused by a virus, bacterium, protist, or fungi that is spread from and infected organism/environment to another organism.
What are disease-carrying organisms called?
Define sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
Infectious diseases that are transmitted from person to person during sexual contact.
Which cells does the HIV virus attack?
Helper T cells
When there are not enough helper T cells, the person has acquired ___________.
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
What are some ways to prevent infectious diseases from spreading?
Washing hands/body frequently
Maintain good personal hygiene
serious of procedures to scientifically solve a problem
1. state the problem
2. Gather information
3. Create a hypothesis
4. Perform an experiment
5. analyze data
Hypothesis not supported(back to 3) Hypothesis supported(back to 4)
6. report results
prediction that can be tested in an experiment
the standard to which the outcome of a test can be compared
something in an experiment that can change
explanation of things or events based on scientific knowledge from many observations and experiments
statement about how things work in nature that seems to be true every time
any living thing
smallest unit unit of an organism able to carry out the functions of life
an organism's ability to keep proper conditions inside despite anything going on outside the organism
Characteristics of Organisms
responds to their surroundings
Needs of Organisms
source of energy
the idea that living things come from non-living things
theory that living things come from other living things
put decaying meat in an open and sealed jar. only the opened jar had flies and maggots. flies and maggots came from eggs- disproved spontaneous generation
boiled broth in sealed flasks. when the broth became cloudy with microorganisms, he mistakenly thought it was spontaneous generation.
boiled broths in a sealed and open flask. only the opened flask became contaminated- disproves spontaneous generation and Needham
boiled broth in S-necked flasks. only the one that was tilted and was exposed to dust was contaminated- disproved spontaneous generation
hypothesized that energy from the Sun, lightning, and Earth's heat triggered chemical reactions in early Earth's history. the new;y-formed molecules were washed in the ancient oceans, known as the Primordial Soup
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
sent electrical currents through a mixture of gases similar to those of early Earth's atmosphere. when the gases cooled, they condensed into ocean-like liquid that contains materials (amino acids) found in modern day cells
evolutionary history of an organism
used to organize organisms (King Phil Cried Out For Good Soup)
two-word naming system developed by Linnaeus used to name various species
detailed lists of identifying characteristics that includes scientific names
Common Cell Traits
Cells are the smallest unit that is capable of performing the functions of life
have a cell membrane
protective outer covering of a cell (before cell wall)
regulates interactions between the cell and the environment
water is able to move freely in and out
food and other molecules go in
waste go out
found in plants, algae, fungi, and most bacteria- tough outer coverings that protects the cell and give it shape
gelatin-like material in every cell
cells with membrane bound structures
Cells without membrane bound structures
structures in eukaryotic cells
some process energy and others make substances for the cell or other cells
some move material or store material
most are surrounded by membranes
directs all activities and is separated from the cytoplasm by a membrane
contains instructions for everything the cell does- DNA
food made in the green organelles (chloroplasts) in the cytoplasm a plant cell
releases food in a cell
where cells make their proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
a series of folded membranes in which materials can be processed and moved around inside the cell.
stacked, flattened membranes
sort proteins and other cellucar substances and package them into vesicles
deliver cellular substances to areas inside the cell
deliver cellular substances to the cell membrane where they are released
contains digestive chemicals that help break down food molecules, cell wastes, and worn-out cell parts
group of similar cells that work together to do one job
structure made up of two or more different types of tissue s that work together
course focus knob
fine focus knob
high/medium/low power objective
Robert Hooke-looked at slice of cork under a microscope-found empty little boxes and named them cells
Matthias Schleiden-all plant are made up of cells
Theodore Schwaan- all animals are made up of cells
Rudolf Virchow- cells divide to form new cells
makes up solids, gases, and liquids
Protons- positive charge
Neutrons- no charge
outside of nucleusElectron- Negative Charge
one thing made up of only one kind of atom
can't be broken down into a smaller form by chemical reactions
2 or more elements in exact proportions
group of atoms held together by the energy of chemical reactions
different atoms share their outermost electrons
electrically charged atoms- positive or negative
ions of opposite charges attract to one another to make a electrically neutral compounds
combination of substances in which the individual substance retain their own properties
mixtures inside of living things
always contain carbon and hydrogen and usually are associated with living things
Organic Compounds Found in Living Things
made from elements other than carbon
source for many elements needed for organisms
the cell membrane can select what to take in or release or leave in or leave out
the movement of substances through the cell membrane without the input of energy
3 types- Diffusion, Osmosis, and Facilitated Diffusion
random movement of molecules from an area with relatively more of them to an area where there are less of them
when the two areas have relatively the same number of molecules
diffusion of water through a cell membrane
large molecules that need transport proteins to enter and leave the cell
when an input of energy is needed to transport materials through the cell membrane
taking in a substance by surrounding it with the cell membrane
opposite of endocytosis
the vesicle fuses with the cell membrane and the contents of the vesicle are released
the total number of chemical reactions in an organism
producers uses light energy to make sugars, which can be used as food
chemical reactions occur that break down food molecules into simpler substances and release their stored energy
when cells don't have enough oxygen from respiration
releases some energy stored in glucose molecules
substances in foods that provide energy and materials for cell development, growth, and repair
the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1kg of water 1oC
replaces and repairs body cells for growth
large molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
makes up a protein
building blocks of protein
usually the main source of energy for your body
starch and fiber
you cannot digest fiber- it is used to keep your digestive system running smoothly
nutrients the lack carbon and regulate many chemical reactions in your body
body uses about 14 minerals
second most important next to oxygen
needed for cells to carry out the functions of life
60% of your body
foods were divided into 6 groups
Grain Vegetable Fruit Dairy Meat Oils
process that breaks down food into smaller molecules so they can be absorbed and move into the blood
when food is chewed, mixed, and churned
chemical reactions break down large molecules of food into smaller ones
type of protein that speeds up chemical reactions
Major organs of the digestive tract
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus
an enzyme made in the glands of the mouth
used to speed up the breakdown of complex carbohydrates into simple carbohydrates ex: starch into sugars
tongue, teeth, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
Liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
produce or store enzymes can chemicals that help breakdown food as it passes down the digestive tract
waves of muscle contractions that move food through the entire digestive tract
effect of the food after it passes through the stomach
then moves to the small intestines
bile is added to the chyme to break up large fast particles
adds digestive solution to help break down carbohydrates, protein, and fats
increases the surface area of the small intestine so more areas can absorb the nutrients of the chyme
absorbs water from the undigested mass
the process in which cells reproduce
cell grows to 2x its size
2x its organelles
prepares to divide into 2 cells
chromatids condense and coil into chromosomes- joined together by centromeres
spindle fibers form
centrioles move away from each other
nuclear membrane fragments
spindle fibers attach to the centromere
chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
spindle fibers still attached to the centromeres
two chromatids separate
cell stretches out
spindle fibers pull chromatids to each end of the cell
chromosomes stretch and lose rod-like appearance
new nuclear membrane form around each region of chromosomes
the cytoplasm divides and distributes the organelles into each of the new (daughter) cells
a new organism is produce from one organism
reproduction of organisms with eukaryotic cells
a cell that doesn't have a nucleus copies its genetic material and divides into two identical organisms
a new organism growing from the body of the parent organism
uses cell division to regrow body parts
a new organism can grow from each piece of a sea star
contains information for an organism's growth and function
Structure of DNA
bases of nitrogen bases
A G C T
amount of cytosine = amount of guanine
amount of adenine = amount of thymine
holds the information for making proteins
determine the number of amino acids in a protein
made in a DNA patter, but sawed in half ladder
3 Kinds of RNA
moves attached ribosomes inside the cytoplasm
makes up Ribosomes
bring amino acids to the ribosomes
any permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome of a cell
a strand of hereditary material surrounded by a protein couating
all viruses need a host cell to make copies of themselves
Active Viruses and Process
the virus attaches itself to the host cell
the virus then puts its hereditary material inside
the hereditary material causes the cell to make viral hereditary material and proteins
new viruses form
the new viruses are release as the host cell explodes
Latent virus and process
virus attaches itself to the host cell
then puts its hereditary material inside
the virus becomes latent
the hereditary material is copied as cell reproduces
the virus activates and new viruses form
the new viruses are release as the host cell explodes
made from injured viruses or viruses that had its hereditary material removed
the body stops the virus and learns
this help prevent viral diseases
small one celled organisms
live in normal or extreme environments
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
first discovered bacteria from observing scrapings of his teeth under a microscope
3 shapes of bacteria
coccus- sphere shaped
bacilli- rod shaped
spirillum- spiral shaped
an organsim that use oxygen for respiration
an organism that lives without oxygen
2 kingdoms of bacteria
Producer Eubacteria- cyanobacteria
they make their own food using carbon dioxide, water, and energy from sunlight
produce oxygen as waste
some in water = good
too much = bad
found in extreme conditions
salt, heat, and acid lovers
produce methane as waste
result of chemicals produced by bacteria
limits the growth of other bacteria
can treat diseases
any organism that uses dead organisms as food and energy sources
change nitrogen in the air into forms that plants and animals can use
using organisms to clean up or remove environmental pollutants
any organism that causes disease
bacterial pathogens that produces poisonous substances
thick walled structures that protect the bacteria until the environment is favorable to live in again
invented by Pasteur
process of heating a liquid to a specific temperature to kill most bacteria
used to identifying which organism causes a particular disease
washed hands and equipment with carbolic acid that kills pathogens
this prevented a lot of diseases
a disease that is caused by a pathogen that is spread from an infected organism or environment to another organism
infectious diseases spread by direct contact, water and air, food, contact with contaminated objects, and by disease carrying organisms
Sexual Transmitted Diseases (STD)
Conorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis- caused by bacteria
Genital Herpes- lifelong disease, transmitted sexually and mother to child
herpes hides in the body for long periods of time and then reappears
no cure, no vaccine
symptoms can be treated
exist in blood and body fluids
can hide in body for years
can be passed from mother to child
sterile tools can prevent
cannot survive outside the body
only transmitted sexually and blood
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
happens from HIV
attacks immune system- helper T-cells
Want to see the other 383 Flashcards in Science All?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!