The Piagetian term for a particular type of centration in which the child thinks about the world only from his personal perspective is:
An experimenter lines up pairs of checkers into two identical rows. Then the experimenter elongates one of the rows by spacing the checkers farther apart. This is a classic test of:f
Conservation of number
An example of kinship care is:
Eric and Sherral provide foster care for their neglected nephew
A child's ability to add new vocabulary words very quickly is called:
Which of the following is a characteristic of preoperational thought?
The average 6-year-old from a developed nation weighs between:
According to statistics regarding substantiated cases of child maltreatment, about 1 out of every ______ children age 2-5 years is maltreated each year.
The specialization of the functioning of the two halves of the brain is called:
The ability to control one's impulsiveness appears to be directly related to the development of the:
Parents of a 5-year-old girl are likely to say:
"She isn't eating enough"
Speeds up the transmission of neural impulses.
Which of the following is true regarding left-handed people?
Their corpus callosums tend to be thicker than those in right-handed people.
If a reported incident of child maltreatment has been investigated and verified, it is considered to be:
Which of the following is a reason why children of African descent vary more in body size than children of other ethnicities?
They are more genetically diverse
Skills that the person can accomplish with assistance but can't yet perform independently are part of:
The zone of proximal development
A disorder that may result from abnormal development of the corpus callosum is:
Piaget believed that between the ages of 2 and 6, it is difficult for children to think:
Thinking about one idea at a time, ignoring other ideas, is known as:
Vygotsky believed that language advances thinking through:
private and social mediation
The most common cause(s) of death of children worldwide is(are):
Which of the following substances has been shown to reduce intelligence and increase behavior problems in young children?
A person's understanding of the thoughts of other people is called:
Theory of Mind
What is the youngest age at which most children begin to develop theories of mind?
Vygotsky's term for a person whose cognition is stimulated and directed by older and more skilled members of society is:
an apprenticeship in thinking
One underlying factor allowing the development of theory of mind is:
The long band of nerve fibers that connects the brain's hemispheres is:
the corpus callosum
The goal in dealing with child maltreatment is to:
Stop it before it begins
According to Vygotsky, language is a tool:
to advance thought
Ryan suffered a brain injury as a result of an automobile accident. His abilities to speak and to process language were severely affected. His injury was to the:
left side of the brain
At the age of 2, a child will typically have a vocabulary of ______ words and a vocabulary of ______ words at age 6.
A critical-period view of language learning refers to:
the only time language can be learned
Public health experts recognize that while injuries to children occur, their effects may be minimized through:
Gabriel's language and cognitive skills have developed greatly since he began attending preschool. His teacher explains things to the children when they participate in small-group activities and she encourages conversation between children and adults. According to Vygotsky, she uses language to advance thinking through:
The structures, rules, and techniques used to communicate meaning through language are referred to as:
Which of the following is a result of extensive, active play in young children?
Mastery of gross and fine motor skills
Failure to understand that undoing a sequence of events will bring about the original conditions or situation is called:
Between the ages of 2 and 6, a well-nourished child will gain about ______ pounds and grow about ______ inches per year.
4 1/2 ; 3
“I catched two mices in a trap” is an example of:
Irreversibility refers to the preoperational child's tendency to:
Be unable to think from a conclusion to the beginning
Gross motor skills such as riding a tricycle are acquired:
Through a combination of brain maturation and practice
The most common disease of young children in developed nations is:
early tooth decay
Armando started preschool at age 3. His teacher observed that he is small for his age, underweight, and delayed in language development. His parents are unconcerned, declaring that it's just “his way.” However, the teacher may likely suspect:
The process through which axons become coated with a fatty substance that speeds up the transmission of nerve impulses is called:
Evelyn dropped a tiny spot of ketchup on her pants during lunch time. Even though her teacher was able to totally remove the spot, Evelyn is crying hysterically and she wants to go home because she feels that her outfit is ruined. This behavior is an example of which of the following?
focus on appearance
The Reggio Emilia early-childhood program focuses on:
mastery of not typically accomplished until age 7
Which of the following is the best example of scaffolding?
Miriam helps her son Ben make cookies. She measures all of the ingredients out and places them on the counter in small bowls. She reads the recipe aloud while simplifying it as Ben places the ingredients in the bowl and mixes them together with a spoon.
The 2-year-old human brain weighs ______ percent of the adult brain.
Over the past three decades in Brazil, what has been the trend in children in terms of health and body growth?
Children have gone from being undernourished to overnourished.
Overregularization occurs because children:
assume their language always follows the rules they have learned so far.
Romy understands that if she has 4 pieces of pizza and we give her 2 more, she will have 6. However, she does not know what happens if she has 6 and we take away 2. Piaget would say that Romy:
Has demonstrated irreversible thinking.
Skills that a person can perform with assistance, but which they cannot quite perform on their own, lie within the:
zone of proximal development
The ethnic group from which children tend to be tallest is:
Which of the following would be the most likely cause of death in a preschooler?
jumping into a swimming pool and drowning
Children typically first use some rules of grammar:
by age 3
According to Vygotsky, guided participation requires that a child:
interact with a mentor to accomplish a task
Piaget called cognitive development between the ages of 2 and 6 ______ intelligence.
Symptoms of maltreatment include:
Impulsiveness and perseveration are the same in that they both represent:
an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex
Four-year-old Jon is sitting at the lunch counter next to his sister Erin. They are having hotdogs for lunch. Mom cuts Jon's hotdog into five pieces and Erin's into six pieces. Jon protests because “Erin has more than me!” Which of the following abilities does Jon not yet demonstrate?
Low-income children are given preschool education through:
Writing your name is a ______, whereas kicking a ball is a(n) ______.
fine motor skill; gross motor skill
The formation of overregularization in a child's speech patterns indicates:
he or she is able to apply grammatical rules, although incorrectly, to her vocalizations.
To assume that the world is unchanging is to engage in:
The hippocampus is a structure in the brain that processes:
The area of the brain that is crucial in expressing and regulating emotions is the:
The increased activity of the amygdala is a reason that children during the play years experience:
The body mass index (BMI) is the lowest of the life span at age:
Secondary prevention involves:
responding to the first warning signs of a problem
Kindra, age 4, is very particular about her daily routines, especially at mealtime. She will only eat from one certain plate, drink from one certain cup, and must have a folded napkin next to her plate. She is exhibiting the phenomenon of:
Mrs. Suttman helps her 2-year-old daughter count blocks and measure teaspoons of cocoa. Mrs. Suttman is providing:
Because of fast-mapping, a preschooler:
learns some words after a single exposure to them
Krista understands that 4 + 6 = 10 but does not understand that 10 – 6 = 4. She is displaying:
An example of overregularization is:
"He hitted me with the stick"
When children hear a new word in a familiar context, they can simply add the word to the general category without fully understanding the word. This is called:
The amygdala is a brain structure that registers:
One key factor that strengthens theory of mind at about age 4 is:
having an older sibling
According to Vygotsky, the internal dialogue that we have with ourselves either silently or out loud is referred to as:
Vygotsky's theory includes the idea of:
young children as "apprentices in thinking."
A confidential nationwide survey of young adults in the United States found that, as a child, ______ had been slapped, hit, or kicked by a parent or other adult caregiver.
An example of a gross motor skill is:
Preschoolers have a tendency to try to make up a reason why things that they see and hear occur. This tendency is known as:
A young child will have the most difficult time understanding words which:
express the relationships of place and time
Jodee, age 5, insists on having all of the different foods on her plate separated. If the vegetables touch the meat, for example, she insists on a clean plate. Jodee's parents are concerned about this behavior. What advice would you offer them?
Allow Jodee to grow out of this "just-right" obsession
Humans seek reasons, causes, and underlying principles to explain the world around them. The research term for this is:
Ivan was playing under the kitchen table when he stood up suddenly and bumped his head. He pointed at the table and sternly said, “Naughty table!” This is an example of which of the following?
Preschoolers do not use private speech to:
communicate with those around them
In which of the following areas will deficits be most apparent in a child who is maltreated?
An activity that requires fine motor skills is:
buttoning a coat
Each time Juan puts a puzzle together, his father gives him a little less help. Which theorist would be happy with Juan's father?
In developed nations, which of the following is most likely to be lacking in a child's diet?
calcium, iron, and zinc
A good example of a fine motor skill is:
using scissors to cup paper
To find a good preschool, a parent should look for:
teacher responsive to children's needs; low teacher-child ratios
In contemporary society, foster care generally means:
children's removal from the original parents
A magician's stock and trade is getting the audience to focus on one aspect of his demonstration while he is manipulating another. This is most easy with preoperational children, as they are easily fooled with their tendency to:
Kayla is 4 years old and has recently begun coordinating the two sides of her body more efficiently. This development may be attributed to:
growth of the corpus callosum
Which type of injury prevention begins after an injury and is intended to limit the damage caused by the injury?
When a young child asks “why?” what kind of information are they most likely seeking?
they want to know how the situation or behavior affects them
Daryl has a ball of Silly Putty. His 6-year-old son, John, watches as Daryl flattens the Silly Putty into a thin “pancake.” When Daryl asks John if there is now more Silly Putty, John replies, “Yes.” Piaget would say that John has:
not mastered the concept of conservation
Spotting warning signs of abuse, such as slow weight gain and insecure, disorganized attachment, is associated with:
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