Because John's mother suffers from depression and his father is an alcoholic, John is often neglected. Despite his circumstances, he maintains a positive outlook. What may be helping him keep his positive attitude?
his circle of friends and their activities
A major coping measure that helps children and families deal with problems and stress is:
The period in the United States in which the idea of “risk-benefit analysis” of children's living conditions was popular was the year:
The percentage of school-age children that live in households headed by a single father is:
Social cognition refers to:
the ability to understand social interactions
The bully who has been a victim of bullying himself is called a:
Parents' beliefs that they mold their children's personalities may be diminished by the finding that:
Most of the environmental effects on personality may be from the "Nonshared" environment.
The most common type of family for children in the United States is the:
Andrea is a typical 11-year-old whose growing self-consciousness and self-criticism drive her to frequently compare herself with her peers. If Andrea is like most children, such comparisons will:
reduce her self-concept
School-age children would most admire:
Marla, who was punished for not telling the teacher who threw a paper airplane.
The keyword in the definition of bullying is:
The statement, “All children are not the same. Some children are resilient, coping easily with stressors that cause harm in other children,” describes the prevailing view in America in the year:
Research shows that a child is most likely to be a victim of bullying if the child is:
By the age of 10, which of the following is true regarding friendships?
both boys and girls want to have a best friend
Barbara is in the third grade. She spends many hours rehearsing her math skills, reading books, and collecting bugs. Even though these activities may seem boring, they are all part of Barbara's developing a healthy sense of:
Lawrence Kohlberg built on the theories of ______ in his description of the stages of moral development.
In the United States, which of the following ethnic groups is most likely to accept and support single parents?
The best example of an aggressive-rejected child is:
Veru, who is disliked by most cildren because she is so uncooperative
Which of the following is Erikson's fourth stage of psychosocial crises?
Industry versus inferiority
Dimitri has been married before and has two biological children. He has just married Natasha, who has also been married before and has a biological son. Their family is an example of a:
Children's “increasing ability to regulate themselves, to take responsibility, and to exercise self-control” all contribute to their sense of:
When one assesses one's abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against those of other people, especially one's peers, one is engaging in:
If Max responds that “Heinz shouldn't steal because stealing is against the law,” he is exemplifying which Kohlberg stage?
Which of the following best explains why children who come from violent homes have few close friends and are lonely?
The children don't learn the skills necessary to sustain close relationships
Julia esteems herself very highly but scorns her peers. Research indicates that most likely, she will:
Susan decides not to tell the teacher that her classmate Ian is cheating on the math exam because she's afraid the other kids will call her a snitch. This is an example of stage ______ of moral development.
Kohlberg measured morality by:
analyzing how people reason about what is right and wrong
Which of the following attributes is typical of school-age children?
they engage in social comparison
Stella's parents observed that she has begun to participate in moral arguments on issues of right and wrong. Her matured moral thinking is due to:
concrete operational thinking and peer experience
Alan is an adopted child who lives with three siblings, all biological children of his adoptive parents. Alan's math skills are far better than those of his adoptive parents or his adoptive siblings. This provides evidence that:
genes mayhave a stronger effect than familial environment on some abilities
Which of the following is a stage of moral reasoning in Kohlberg's theory?
Because schoolchildren judge their own talents and limitations more realistically than preschoolers:
their self-confidence may suffer as they compare themselves with others
Compared with nuclear families, extended families typically:
involve more people
Alisha's family was experiencing multiple problems, including her mother's illness, her father's loss of employment, and two relatives having moved into their home. Through the stress, her grades remained high and her study skills good. Most likely, Alisha was:
using school achievement as an escape from the stress of home
During the latency stage, children:
assimilate cultural values
A common characteristic of bullies is that they:
The Piagetian stage of development that is similar to Kohlberg's stage of preconventional morality is:
A child who feels responsible for whatever happens in the family, whether negative or positive, is experiencing:
Of the following children, who is at greatest risk in terms of school performance and success as an adult?
Richard, who is being raised by his single mom
If you were to ask 10-year-old Stephen “Who knows you best?” which of the following would likely be his answer?
"I know myself better than anyone"
According to Erikson's theory, children in middle childhood tend to judge themselves as either:
industrious or inferior
In childhood, how children react to a serious stressor depends primarily on:
how many other stressors are present
The child who weathers severe family problems, even abuse, and somehow remains unscathed in the process is called:
According to Erikson, if 9-year-old Anna is successful in solving her psychosocial conflict, she should be developing a view of herself as ______.
The statement that best reflects moral reasoning at the preconventional level is:
"I am careful not to get caught"
Unrealistically high or low self-esteem correlates with:
Adoptive families account for ______ percent of school-age children's family structure.
According to Freud, which of the following will 8-year-old Sven experience?
repression of his psychosexual needs
A longitudinal study of peer acceptance found that for fifth graders ______ was more important than ______.
mutual loyalty; popularity
What percentage of children tend to be consistently unpopular?
Liv is an extremely shy and anxious 8-year-old. Other children seem to dislike her. She appears to be a(n):
Over time, the consequences of bullying:
may lead to problems with relationships for the bullies
In middle childhood, the crucial question regarding family structure is:
whatever the structure, does it fulfill the five essential functions for school-age children?
The approximate percentage of school-age children living in a two-parent (husband and wife) family is:
The family-stress model, as applied to economic conditions, illustrates that:
the parents' reaction to poverty is the crucial factor in family stress
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