Look across species and see how the brain evolved. Phylogenetic comparisons suggest that higher brain structures are more recent products of evolution.
Relative Measures of brain evolution : total brain weight
are elephants really smarter than humans?
gives a lineage more consistent with what we know about brain and intelligence (puts mammals over non mammals and humans at top) but within mammals puts porpoise over blue whale and baboon over gorilla.
favors mammals and puts humans at the top
index of cerebral enfolding
puts dolphins over humans. the overall size of human cortex is limited- by the skull and birth limits. (big head baby= C section - which in the wild means death.) Cerebral cortex has gotten bigger and more elaborate over time.
Otogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny
developmental gradient of the brain moves from lower to - with hindbrain developing first then midbrain, and forebrain (cortex) last.
Ventricular zone is where neural progenitors start their migration derived from stem cells
Developmental form of glia (transient) used by migrating neurons for guidance. Think scaffolding.
Stem Cells VS NS Progenitors
stems cells can become anything, have not been differentiated whereas NS progenitors can only become neurons or glia but are still "plastic"
something that can be shaped. Stem cells where you put them can adapt, as differentiate less plasticity. Can be highly plastic but not differentiated, inverse relationship.
Promote Neural Growth
Programmed cell death- normal
Injury- induced cell death
picks out what to save, only save and focus energy on circuits that are being used. Circuits that aren't used will be gotten rid of
the site of summation for incoming information. At any given moment, the collective influence of all neurons that conduct impulses to a given neuron will determine whether or not action potential will be initiated at the axon hillock.
Nernst Goldman Equation
used to calculate the “differential charge inside versus outside the neuron.” This difference is the “neuron potential,” and is normally quite negative
a protein receptor-channel that opens directly when a transmitter binds it
coupled to a protein that causes chemical reactions and indirectly alters ion movement.
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