1. Aristotle supported the idea of epigenesis, the notion that: (p43) A) prenatal development begins with a new miniature individual already preformed. B) new structures and functions emerge throughout prenatal development. C) prenatal development begins in the center of the body of the new individual. D) Eve was created out of Adam’s rib.
new structures and functions emerge throughout prenatal development
2. Which of the following designs compares the behavior of different groups of children who are different ages? (p34) A) microgenetic design B) cross-sectional design C) landscape design D) longitudinal design
3. Which of the following activities is NOT a core component of effortful attention? (p18) A) exerting effort on tasks B) controlling emotions C) focusing attention D) inhibiting impulses
exerting effort on tasks
4. The “turtle technique” is a method: (p4) A) children were taught to help cope with anger. B) parents can use to teach children to crawl. C) children can use when they are feeling shy. D) teachers were taught to help deal with children who have developmental delays.
children were taught to help cope with anger
5. Neurotransmitters are: (p18) A) the electrical impulses in the brain. B) chemicals involved in communication between brain cells. C) gene defects that produce schizophrenia. D) what early philosophers theorized reflected children's core nature at birth.
chemicals involved in communication between brain cells
6. Which of the following items is NOT one of the four factors Scarr identified as involved in the differences among siblings? (p22) A) sociocultural context B) genes C) children's choice of environments D) treatment by parents and others
7. Which of the following groups of Romanian-born children adopted by British families fared the best in weight gain after adoption? (p7) A) children who were adopted before age 6 months B) children who were adopted between the ages of 6 and 24 months C) children who were adopted between the ages of 24 and 42 months D) All of the adopted children fared equally poorly in weight gain.
children who were adopted before age 6 months
8. A researcher is interested in thoroughly exploring 8-year-old Jane's thoughts and feelings about living in poverty. The researcher's best option for obtaining this information would be: (27) A) clinical interview. B) structured interview. C) naturalistic observation. D) structured observation.
9. Stage theories regard development as: (p16) A) active. B) passive. C) continuous. D) discontinuous.
10. Siegler and Jenkins' examination of the development of the counting-on strategy is an example of ________ design. (p36) A) longitudinal B) cross-sectional C) experimental D) microgenetic
11. The question of the influence of biological and environmental factors on child development is best termed: (p12) A) nature versus nurture. B) nature and nurture. C) nature then nurture. D) nature and/or nurture.
nature and nurture
12. The child-developmental research method of preferential looking has yielded practical benefits for: (p23) A) diagnosing the severity of cataracts in infants. B) training children with specific language impairment. C) training infants to see more clearly. D) diagnosing attention deficit disorder.
diagnosing the severity of cataracts in infants
1. Which of the following statements about sex determination is true? (p87) A) The mother's egg always determines the sex of the offspring. B) The father's sperm always determines the sex of the offspring. C) Sometimes it is the mother's egg and sometimes it is the father's sperm that determines the sex of the offspring. D) The mother's egg and the father's sperm jointly determine the sex of the offspring.
the fathers sperm always determines the sex of the offspring
Crossing over refers to: (p88) A) the development of female genitalia by an XY zygote. B) a process by which two members of a chromosomal pair swap sections of DNA. C) the random shuffling of the members of the 23 chromosomal pairs in the formation of egg and sperm. D) a change in a section of DNA caused by environmental factors.
a process by which two members of a chromosomal pair swap sections of DNA
3. X-linked disorders are: (p92) A) more likely to affect males. B) more likely to affect females. C) equally likely to affect males and females. D) a result of fragile X syndrome.
more likely to affect males
4. Which of the following statements provides the best evidence for the argument that intelligence has a genetic influence? (p97) A) Identical twins are not identical in IQ. B) Identical twins are more similar in intelligence than fraternal twins. C) Fraternal twins are more similar in intelligence when they are reared together than when they are reared apart. D) Fraternal twins become less similar in intelligence as they get older.
identical twins are more similar in intelligence than fraternal twins
5. Shared-environment influences have been demonstrated for: (p100) A) schizophrenia. B) positive emotions in toddlers. C) personality. D) All of the answers are correct.
positive emotions in toddlers
6. The folds of the cerebral cortex: (p103) A) hold the myelin that increases the efficiency of the neurons. B) permit the brain to be constantly bathed in protective fluid. C) facilitate the communication of its different lobes. D) allow more cortex to be packed into a small area.
allow more cortext to be packed into a small area
7. Which of the following processes increases the capacity of dendrites to form connections with other neurons? (p108) A) synaptic pruning B) arborization C) myelination D) formation of axon spines
8. Information-processing theories place particular emphasis on: (p145) A) what changes occur. B) when change occurs. C) how change occurs. D) for whom change occurs.
how change occurs
9. The ________ approach is especially concerned with how variable children's thinking is? (p150) A) core-knowledge B) dynamic-systems C) sociocultural D) overlapping-waves
10. According to core-knowledge theorists, children's intuitive theory of ________ emerges latest. (p157) A) psychology B) biology C) physics D) geography
11. Private speech is conceived of by Vygotsky as a(n): (p160) A) error that young children make. B) example of something that adults explicitly teach children. C) cultural tool. D) step toward internalizing parents' statements.
step toward internalizing parents' statements
12. The dynamic-systems approach is intended to counter which disadvantage of other theories of cognitive development? (p164-165) A) inability to explain infants' apparent innate knowledge of some domains B) lack of emphasis on how others help children learn C) lack of attention to strategic variability D) impression that children's thinking and their actions are independent
impression that children's thinking and their actions are independent.
nature and nurture
a question of how large a role does each play
the active child (3)
1: rules individuals play in their own development 2: motivated to learn- pretend play 3: actively seek out own environment
quantitative change (how trees grow, age)
qualitative change (butterfly evolution)
mechanisms of developmental change
how and why does change occur
the physical, social, cultural, economic, and historical circumstances in a child's life
individual differences (4)
1: genetic differences 2: differences in how parents and others treat them 3: differences in children's choices of environment 4: similar experiences affect children differently
children's welfare/ social policy
1: early detection of developmental disorders. early detection=early treatment 2: developmental research also influences social policy
the degree to which independent measurements using the same instrument are consistent.
two or more different raters independently agree- get the same results regardless of who is doing it
measure yields the same score across different testing occasions.- is reliable if you get the same results regardless of when the measure is used.
does the test measure what you want it to measure
are you testing what you think you are testing- IQ tests, infant studies
can the observed effects be generalized beyond the experimental context.- same results in different areas.
advantage of structured observation
ensures all children will experience same thing
disadvantage of structured observation
not in child's natural environment
allow you to determine cause and effect 1: groups must be comparable at beginning 2: the groups must get exact same treatment except along dimension of interest. - experimental vs. control group
is there a relationship between two variables
limitation of correlational designs
1: cannot infer cause and effect 2: third variable problem
indicate strength and direction or relationship positive: both increase negative: one increases, one decreases
begins 12 hours after fertilization and continues throughout fetal development
cells move from point of origin to elsewhere in embryo
cells specialize, totaling needs of separate structures and functions- eye cells, skin cells,
selective death of certain cells when no longer needed
group of cells, then divide
after implantation ____ begins
during gastrulation, inner cell mass differentiates into 3 layers
1: u shaped groove down center of top layer 2: folds at top of groove fuse and create the neural tube, which develops into brain and spinal cord
neural tube defect
usually occurs in 1st month of pregnancy-- usually before a woman knows she is pregnant
helps fetus prepare to breathe outside womb, strengthens diaphram
fetal sensory experience: smell/taste
fetus detects smells, flavors or amniotic fluid
fetal sensory experience: hearing
by 6 months, responds to sounds
fetal sensory experience: sight
virtually no visual experience in womb. but, do detect light
decrease in response to repeated or continued stimulation - can recognize familiar smells and sounds (songs, stories)
harmful environmental agents
sensitive period- terotagens
many agents are harmful if exposure occurs during a period of prenatal development
dose- response relation: terotagens
amount and length of exposure determine degree of harm
sleeper effects that show up later in life make id of teratogens ______
development occurs normally only if right genes get turned on and off at 3
1: at right time 2: in the right place 3: for the right length of time
how does variation in behavior and development result from interaction of genetics and environment?
all traits are heritable, and all traits develop within an environment
affected by combo of many gens
affected by many environmental factors - not easy to tease apart factors affecting the development of a behavior or ability
extent that environmental factors underlie a given trait
children are more similar to siblings than best friend because they were reared together.
dad and grandpa more similar than grandson and granpa
identical twins reared apart
just as similar in personality, interests, and attitudes as those reared together
identical twins are more likely to die around _____,while fraternal twins are more likely to die around ______
same, different ages
shared environment affects
degree of similarity among biologically unrelated siblings
substantial influence of shared environments
positive affect (emotion) in young children
non-shared environmental effects
effects of the environments unique to the individual - birth order
neuron has three components
1: cell body 2: dendrites 3: axons
basic biological material
fibers that receive input- branch like
fiber that sends electrical signals away
perform support function, form myelin sheath around certain axons.
the space between two neurons where chemical signals are transmitted
four lobes, plus association areas that lie between major sensory and motor areas
spatial processing, integration of sensory information
the growth of new neurons
increase in size and complexity of dendrites. most intense grwoth and differentiation occur after birth
begins before birth and continues into 20's
forming connections between neurons
unused neurons are eliminated
the capacity of the brain to be affected by experience
experience expectant plasticity
1: basic experiences are "expected" by the individual brain- less information needs to be coded by the genes 2: if "expected" experience does not occur, deficits may result and rewiring may occur. - congenital blindness, when one sense is down, another is enhanced because of unused cells.
experience dependent plasticity
neural connections are created and reorganized throughout life as a function of individual experience - expert skill- cellists and violinists
worst time for brain damage
earliest states of prenatal development and in first year
best time for brain damage
plasticity is highest and brain can rewire during ______
why do we have theories?
1: framework 2: raise crucial questions 3: no single theory accounts for all of development
piaget- founder of cognitive development
provided a broad theory to account for changes in children's thinking
constructivist theory (active child)
1: child motivated to learn 2: learns on own 3: doesn't need rewards to learn
"child as a scientist"
generate hypotheses, perform experiements, and draw conclusions
1: extending known action pattern to a new object 2: using a known behavior/action on a known object
modifying old action pattern to deal with new object
reaching a balance between current understanding and your knowledge
sensori-motor stage: substage 1 (birth to 1 month)
young infants are reflexive - reflexes are essential tools for learning (sucking, grasping) - assimilation and accommodation begin with refelxes
sensory-motor stage: substage 2
less reflex bound, more interested in world around them, body-centered action - sever limitation: immature knowledge, own actions can help them acquire knowledge
sensori-motor stage (4 to 8 months)
1: repetition of actions - more interested in world around them and actions less body-centered. 2: less object permanence- out of sight, out of mind
sensory-motor stage: substage 4 (8-12 months)
can represent objects' existence when hidden but representations extremely fragile A not B error.
a not b error
hide in one spot and when hidden in the second spot, baby will look in the first spot again
sensori-motor stage: substage 5 (12-18 months)
"child as a scientist" - actively and systematically explore objects. dropping objects from varied heights
preoperational stage (2-7 years)
symbolic representation- pretend play and drawing convention
limitations of preoperational stagee
egocentrism - limited in ability to take another perspective besides own centration: centering their attention on one aspect of an avent or problem
the liquid in containers
actions on concrete objects in the world (conservation)
third variable problem
the two variables were actually influenced by a third variable (example: correlational design) May cause one to believe that something causes another, not accounting for the third variable.
the emergence of new structures and functions in the course of development
embryonic cells, which can develop into any type of body cell
a transparent, fluid filled membrane that surrounds and protects the fetus.
the pattern of growth in which areas near the head develop earlier than areas farther from the head.
a soothing technique, used in many cultures, that involves wrapping a baby tightly in cloths or a blanket
the genetic material an individual inherits
the observable expression of the genotype, including both body characteristics and behavior
inheritance in which traits are governed by more than one gene
the science concerned with how variation in behavior and development results from the combination of genetic and environmental factors.
parts of the brain that lie between the major sensory and motor areas and that process and integrate input from those areas.
the specialization of the hemispheres of the brain for different modes of processing.
formations on the dendrites of neurons that increase the dendrites' capacity to form connections with other neurons
the process by which neurons from synapses with other neurons, resulting in trillions of connections
formal operational stage (12 plus)
dethe period in which people become able to think about abstractions and hypothetical situation
approaches that emphasize the sophistication of infants' and young children's thinking in areas that have been important throughout human evolutionary history
approaches that emphasize that other people and the surrounding culture contribute to children's development
more knowledgeable individuals organize activities in wys that allow less knowledgeable people to learn
the innumerable products of human ingenuity that enhance thinking
social partners intentionally focus on a common referent in the external environment
more competent people provide a temporary framework that supports children's thinking at a higher lebvel than chldren could manage on their own
believed that well-fare of society depended on upbringing of children. Basic nature would lead to rebelliousness. Boys were especially difficult. Self-control and discipline were most important goals of education. Children born with INNATE KNOWLEDGE
similar to Plato's beliefs (without education, children-->rebellious) ALL KNOWLEDGE COMES FROM EXPERIENCE, mind of infant is like a blackboard on which nothing has been written.
Children's minds are a "blank slate" (tabula rasa) Development reflects nurture provided byt the child's parents and society. Goal of child-rearing is growth of character (by parents setting good examples) Avoid indulging child at early age
Parents and society should give children maximum freedom from beginning. Said that children learn from own interactions with objects and people rather from teachers/parents. Believed children shouldn't be educated until the age of 12.
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