Brief description- amount of Hgb glycosylation, a weighted average of glucose levels over the last 3 months, which indicates diabetes control Normal values- 2.2-4.8% nondiabetic adult 2.5-5.9% good diabetic control 6.8-8.0% fair diabetic control >8.0% poor diabetic control Increased- poorly controlled diabetes Decreased- not clinically significant
Fasting Blood Sugar
Brief Description- measures glucose content in blood after fasting at least 4hrs Normal values- 70-110 mg/dL Increased- diabetes, glucocorticoids, epinepherine, or growth hormone, Cushing's Disease, pregnancy Decreased- hypoglycemia, insulin reaction, too little food in diabetic, increased excersise in diabetic
Brief Description- measures blood level of the cardiac glycoside Digoxin (Lanoxin) used to treat heart failure and tachycardia Normal Values- 0.8-2.0 ng/dL Increased- digitalis toxicity Decreased- blood level of drug not theraputic
Brief Description- measures blood concentration of the anti-seizure medication Phenytoin (Dilantin) Normal values- 10-20 micrograms/mL Increased- phenytoin toxicity Decreased- seizure activity
Brief Description- measures acidity or alkalinity Normal Values- 4.6-8.0 Increased- diet high in fruits.vegetables contribute to alkalinity. most bacterial UTI's except E.coli, Alkalosis Decreased- diets high in meat and eggs contribute to acidity, E.coli UTI, Acidosis
Urinalysis: Specific Gravity
Brief Description- measures how concentrated the urine is relative to the density of water Normal values- 1.010-1.030 Increased- may temporarily increase if dye, protein, or glucose is used in diagnostic tests. Dehydration, and increased ADH result in true increase in specific gravity Decreased- dilute urine due to diuretics, increased fluid intake or diabetes insipidus.
Brief Description- measures amount of protein in the urine Normal values- Negative Increased- severe stress, PIH
Brief Description- measures amount of sugar in the urine Normal values- Negative Increased- glycosuria indicates hyperglycemia or decreased renal threshold for glucose (e.g. diabetes, pregnancy)
Brief Description- measures presence of ketone bodies which are end products of fatty acid metabolism. Normal values- Negative Increased- diabetes, starvation, vomiting, all-protein diet
Brief Description- detects conversion of nitrate to nitrite by bacteria. May indicate presence of bacteria in urine. Normal values- Negative Increased- UTI
Urinalysis: Leukocyte Esterase (LE)
Brief Description- detects enzyme found in graulocytes, histiocytes, and Trichomonas Normal values- Negative Increased- UTI, infected amniotic fluid
Red Blood Cell Count (RBC)
Brief Description- measures the number of RBC's/mm cubed blood Normal Values- men= 4.7-6.1 million/micrograms/L; women= 4.2-5.4 million/micrograms/L Increased- polycythemia, high altitude, intense physical training. Decreased- loss or destruction of RBC's, (hemmorage) decreased production of RBC's, bone marrow supression.
Hematocrit (hct, pcv, crit)
Brief Description- measures the percentage of RBC's in the plasma *if RBC and Hgb are normal, the Hct is about 3 times the Hgb Normal Values- men=42-52%; women= 37-47% Increased- loss of body fluids causes a relative increase in Hct. Polycythemia causes actual increase in Hct. Decreased- overhydration causes a relative decrease in HCT; a decrease in number of RBC's such as hemmorage causes an actual decrease in HCT; pregnancy.
Brief Description- measures the amount of hgb in the RBC's Normal Values- men=14-18 g/dL; women= 12-16 g/dL Increased- some generic anemias such as thalassemia are hyperchromic (too much Hgb). Decreased- anemia, blood loss, bone marrow suppression, abnormal Hgb diseases such as sickle cell anemia.
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