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How food is defined, produced, and consumed in a cultural context
-can mark ethnic, regional or other idendities
ex. apple pie = American
How people become part of the same culture
-Wari people, reverence for the dead by eating them
-Not an act of violence, it is an act of honor.
-linked to ethnocentrism
-Potlach: wealth is created not through keeping but through giving.
-outlawed under colonialism, saw it as unproductive but continues
- ex. Chief gives away blankets and food.
-Used as a way to show a governments wealth and power
Studies Interaction between nutrition and biology in social context
Ex. food and biological plasticity – describe bodily change in response to the environment
-too many or too few calories/nutrients
-supplementary plumpy vs. crunch berries
The ways bodies change in response to the world around them
Understanding global economy by looking at movement between the core and periphery areas:
(developed by Immanuel Wailerstein)
Places where goods, people, and resources flow to.
-Core areas - higher scale labor, knowledge/info related labor, capitalist labor, higher levels of consumption for foods/energy
-major cities are core (in US)
Where thing are produced or where people move from.
-Periphery – lower scale labor, more people working with less expensive equipment
-smaller cities (in US)
How raw materials are extracted from periphery to the core
-looking for food was a drive for colonialism
-sugar sculptures were a way of showing wealth
Food preserving enabled a whole range of social effects that built world systems. Enables long distance travel
-core zones import food at reasonable cost
-enables long distance travel (preserving)
-Ex. canning and the war
Political Expression into economic capital and channels through markets.
-Using economic power as a way of changing politics around food
Catastrophic disruption of society manifested in failure of production, distribution, and consumption of food
-long time resource depletion
Global systems may disrupt local food systems. Food production highly centralized
Food exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access.
Access in all ways- afford and social structures that make food possible
-Technological development has hindered us
-Invention of canning, enabled long term storage and pre-made meals and ingredients, frozen food
-makes ppl work longer hours in labor and less time making food
Industrialization- related shift in main causes of sickness.
-From infectious diseases and malnutrition to chronic disease and obesity
-see mortality rates increase, fatal for those who are young
2.3 million adults in 2015 in US. Related to health problems which causes health problems.
-Related to industrialization (is shaped by culture)
-major tourist zone in Mexico,
-Transition between subsistence farming to tourism.
-Tourism made more money so workers switched, meaning loss of farming
-lots of obesity and malnutrition
Substantial barriers to access healthy food.
· 64% lack veggies
· 34% lacked dairy
-Low income urban neighborhoods that have no supermarkets.
-High collaboration of food deserts and obesity
Body is designed to store fat when over abundance is present. Human bodies evolved to store energy for brief periods of hunger.
The mass production of agricultural crops using industrial techniques, methods, and strategies.
-The goal: to maximize output.
-Specialized agricultural methods.
-higher concentrations of animals
Corn doesn't fit in silos. Sell corn when prices are good or store when bad
Vertical integration: all stages of production are controlled by one company. Controls production at every stage
Contract farming: contracts define quantity and quality of product. Company maintains control
Fertilizer run off, pesticides, animal waste, Hypoxia- deprived of oxygen
-Increased poverty and food insecurity.
-Export of industrial grain production to the developing world.
-Mono-cropping (less food for family and community, increased environmental degration)
Biggest ox, gets rid of cockiness and arrogance. Interactions, resource sharing, creating communities, social hierarchy
Core: eating at the cheesecake factory
Periphery: people cutting the lettuce like Garcia, many people die from pesticides every year
Cultural Anthropology: farmers in Iowa had stereotype that we are the corn fed people that get big
Neoliberialism: deregulation that farmers don't want. Farmers don't like government interaction. Want to be private
World System, colonialism, change in agriculture, inequality, and obesity
World System, role of global organizations (World Bank, IMF), impact on local agriculture, impact on diet
Poverty: food is available but no one can afford it. Effective countries grow enough food, only goes to wealthy
Historical Processes: shifts from hunters to sedentary agriculture (farming)
Politics: Used to weaken rebellious population
Health: Child development and more likely to get HIV/Aids
Loss of productive resources: short term needs outweigh longterm
Migration: working adults leave to find money. Become refugees with no political rights
More efficient, industrial and post-industrial economies (more jobs), cheap food, alternative energy, Green Revolution
Decline of rural communities, greater social costs for our food, increased distance between farm and table, pollution, poor treatment of human labor, more food and less nutrition
Green Revolution. Farm families have to buy seeds each year. Increase pesticide use which increases pollution.
Primarily used by royalty. Status symbol and used for trade.
Depicted a picture of happy slaves eating watermelon.
-tried to justify slavery
Shows othering, cartoon characters that make fun of their culture
Women and children in charge of dressing and preparing dead.
-gender played key role, They ate the "lesser" meat which had a neurological disease.
-to make sugar move accessible Columbus brought it over on his second trip
-major motivation for colonial expansion
-elite status of sugar in Europe
Saved money by feeding to slaves
-salt cod curing technology and world systems (how Europe became powerful)
-salt curing restored protein, enabling longer sea voyages
Technology, Napoleon offered a prize to whoever could find an effect way of food preservation.
-seen as a novelty
-jars used lead – leads to neurological problems
Food transporting hurts the environment.
Food produced at great distances are not the best quality.
eating locally - less energy used, follows local laws, less processed food
Didn't have time to eat. Labor practices influence eating practices
Overproduction of corn had to be used so they turned it into sugar. Industrial agriculture
Made to suit genders (Hungry Man). High weight gain and malnourishment
Having heart burn is normal, drinking is normal, drive through weddings. You can eat anything you want without getting sick
Government forces diet on Arizona population, causing them to become very obese while Mexico population remains healthy
Organized attempt to guaranteed certain wages and conditions for luxury. Marketing technique.
-people who produce food around the world earn little money and don’t have bargaining power because of the people in the core
Stereotype: take advantage of welfare, minorities, single moms
Reality: Parents have minimum wage jobs, kids benefit most
Pressure for the perfect body. Hollywood.
-Results in producing dangerous body practices, tormented selves, and socioemotional suffering on a vast scale
-everyday eating together, norm for doing so
-common eating practice in this room: sitting at a table
-way of sharing resources amongst individuals, families or communities
-cultivation of shared tastes/behaviors around the world
-can demonstrate social hierarchy
-ppl eat different around the world
-unfamiliar ways of eating = gross or unhygienic
Food sharing builds “communities of practice”
Food & eating are shaped by structural factors
-access to resources
-ethical consumption depends on transparent labeling
-GMO foods inject GMOs to the food
-GMO foods = companies
-ranked first in nation for corn, soybean, hog and eggs
-produces 25% of the nation’s ethonal
-21.8/100,000 rate of fatal farming injuries per year
-3.2/100,000 rate of all occupational facilities
-about 30% of occupational fatalities in Iowa are related to farming
-167 lost work time injuries per day
-high rates of:
-house induced hearing loss
Does OSHA regulate farms?
-only if they employ more than 10 ppl in one year
-close relatives excluded (children, parents, siblings)
-regulations apply, but small farms
Biopolitics & War on Fat
·Biopolitical governance: field of politics aimed at administering and optimizing vital characteristics of human life and individual and especially population levels
-EX: vaccine campaign
-We see this in genetic screening – to determine whether or not there are genetic abnormalities
-Population control and fertility campaigns- what makes life life and the things that determine it
What consequences of corn syrup production and consumption does this add conceal?
-Don’t see monoagriculture
-Didn’t touch on the bad things about corn syrup
-You see the beautiful corn field
-No indication on who created the corn field, or the environmental impact or the work that goes into making the corn syrup
-Obesity is expensive
-AA diets prevent AA from having better lives
-Not only cultural inequalities but structural
-About saving money
-Individual responsibilities not a public one
-Focusing on individuals weight shapes identity:
-may create poor health rather than helping it-Creating walkable communities, addressing
·We don’t have obesity rates over time
·We don’t see a even distribution of obesity over the world
·Shaped by local culture and social structure
·Not just about industrialization and wealth
·Obesity: 2.3 million adults in US
-efforts to produce better info to people on how to eat well
-the hood health book
-farm to folk- delivered fresh produce to churches that lost stores
-CSA’s people buy shares of farms produce
-At the beginning of growing season they pay farmers a fee to purchases some of their crop to help farmers not have to do monoarg farming
-cheapest food is heavily processed
-easiest place to access food is at gas stations
-May have a effect on the baby later on in life
-Increase the susceptibility to later life risk for obesity for that child
-Only focuses on individual responsibility
Obesity and Environment-Biology interactions
-Economic and culture structures have the strongest influence
-The human body is designed to store fat when abundance is present
-Some people are more predisposed to gain weight while others do not
· Weight is not a good indicator of being healthy
· Population links between weight and health
-natural causes (drought)
-social causes (technical failure)
-^ex. failure to rotate crops regularly
-focus on fatality
-famines can cause long term affects besides fatality
-loss of productive resources (slaughtering dairy cows)
-famine late 1960s killed 100,000
-affected 50 million ppl
-June-Aug 2010 another famine
-crops failed to mature
-350,000 faced starvation
-1.2 mil ppl were at risk
-global warming was a cause
-climate change induced drought
Solutions to Famine in the Sahel
-colonial laws that made trees the property of the state which limited ppl growing trees
-had to change law so trees could be grown on property
-new techniques for digging that could catch those seeds
-grain bank, helped communities manage grain distribution
-instead of migrating to earn money ppl were being paid to help dig those ditches
-dual problem of over/under nutrition
-in 2010 14.5% of households were food insecure
-largely a problem based by the working poor
-in 2010 85% of households of ppl that were food insecure had at least one employed adult
-deeply tied to the state of the economy
-American culture: promoted by stereotypes about ppl that receive food stamps
-ex. supplemental nutrition assistance program (SNAP)
-only 10% of ppl that receive this receive welfare
-76% of households have kids, older adults or disabled members
-43% are white
-3x as many households have workers in them as those that don’t
-Pima is an indigenous group in New Mexico and Arizona
-Participating in 30 year study on obesity
-They cut their water supply
-Created a famine- lard, sugar, and white
-Diet is 15% fat now it is 40% fat
-Work day eating times: we need to eat quickly, standing up, sitting down, what is available, what time you eat
- Those working at restaurant: sometimes they make a staff meal that is inexpensive but not healthy for you
-Hospitals have some of the worst food choices available
-Some break room have a fridge and microwave
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