? Fundamentally, pathogenic microorganisms use the same machinery as nonpathogenic ones. o Short movie: bacteriophage infecting a cell. ? Biotechnology and biological engineering: research examples o Functional diversity in rhodopsin ? in the presence of light, this will move a proton, creating an electrical gradient that allows ATP production o The functional parts of a cell: people are working on creating a registry of standard biological parts. ? Life on Earth: How did we (everything) get here? (Lessons in geobiological engineering). o Microbes seem to have originated about 3.8 billion years ago. o But it turns out that the oldest rocks on Earth are only about 4 billion years old (existing in Greenland, Australia, and South Africa). o Slide: ?The Early Earth System,? ?The Evidence? o It?s hard to make all these inferences, because the earth looks so different now
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